1 Kings

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  • Published date: April 20, 2020
    • Navarre, Florida, United States



THE  FIRST BOOK OF THE  KINGS,
COMMONLY CALLED,


THE THIRD BOOK OF THE KINGS.


TITLE.  First …third. See note on p. 366.  The


1 Now king David was old [about 70] and stricken in years; and wrong division into two books cuts up the histories of
 Ahaziah and Elijah.
they covered him with clothes, but he gat no heat.


2 Wherefore his advisers said unto him, Let there be sought for my
THESTRUCTURE OF1 AND2 KINGS AS RELATED TO1
lord the king a young damsel:  and let her stand before the king, and AND2 SAMUEL:
2 Sam. 2. l—4. 12.    The Divided kingdom,
let her cherish him, and let her lie in thy bosom, that my lord the king
2 Sam. 5. 1—24. 25.  The United kingdom,
may get heat. 1 Kings 1. 1—12. 15.  The United kingdom.
3 So they sought for a fair damsel throughout all the borders of Israel, 1 Kings 12. 16—2 Kings 25. 30.      The  Divided
kingdom.
and found Abishag a Shunammite, and brought her to the king.
Kings. As compared with Chronicles, Kings and
4 And the damsel was very fair, and cherished the king, and Samuel give the history from the human point of view,
ministered to him:  but the king knew her not. while Chronicles gives the same history from the
 Divine standpoint. The former, as man ruled the history
5 Then Adonijah the son of Haggith exalted himself, saying, I will
; the latter, as God overruled it. Cp. Saul's death, 1
be king:  and he prepared him chariots and horsemen, and fifty men to Sam. 31. 6, with 1 Chron. 10. 13, 14; and in Kings,
run before him. three verses given to Hezekiah's reformation, and in
Chronicles, three chapters.
6 And his father had not displeased him at any time in saying, Why
For the parallel passages in the Book of Chronicles, see
hast thou done so?  and he also was a very goodly man; and his Ap. 56, and note on Title of 1 Samuel, p. 366.


mother [Haggith] bare him after Absalom. 1:1—2:11............................DAVID.
 (Repeated Alternation with Introversion.)
7 And he conferred with Joab the son of Zeruiah, and with Abiathar


the priest: and they following Adonijah helped him. 1:1. David.   Length of years.
1:2-4. Advice of servants to David.
8 But Zadok the priest, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and Nathan
1:5-10. Solomon.  Wrongful suc-
 cession.
the prophet, and Shimei, and Rei, and the mighty men which
1:11-14. Nathan.                              Counter-
belonged to David, were not with Adonijah. }
1:15-. Bath-sheba.                         action
9 And Adonijah slew sheep and oxen and fat cattle by the stone of -15. David.  Very old.
1:16-21. Bath-sheba.                                        Counter
Zoheleth, which is by the well of Rogel, and called all his brethren the }
1:22-27. Nathan.                                               action.
king's sons, and all the men of Judah and the king's servants: 1:28-53. Solomon.  Rightful succession
8 2:1-9. Advice of David to Solomon.
10 But Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah, and the mighty men, and
2:10, 11. David.   Length of reign.
Solomon his brother, he called not.
1 king David : Occurs in 2 Sam. 6:12, 16;  7:18;  8:8,
11;  9:5;  13:21, 39;  16:5, 6;  17:17, 21;  19:11, 16.  Books begins with king David and ends with king of Babylon.  Opens with Temple built, and
closes with Temple burnt.  Begins with David’s first successor on the throne of his kingdom, and ends with David’s last successor released from the
house of the captivity.  Characters of all are tested by the standard if David. old : About seventy.  Cp. 2 Sam. 5:4, 5. gat no heat. Cp. Ps. 32:3, 4.
e
2 servants : i.e. his advisers, probably medical. virgin = damsel.  Heb. b thulah. 3 coasts = borders.


5-10.  SOLOMON.   WRONGFUL SUCCESSORS.


5-7. His adherents.   Invited.
8. Non-adherents.
9. His adherents.   Invited.
10. Non-invited.


5 Adonijah. Fourth son of David (1 Sam. 3:4).  Amnon dead (2 Sam. 13:29), Absalom dead (2 Sam. 18:14), and probably Chileab (2 Sam. 3:3).
men. Heb. ‘ish.  Ap. 14. II. 6 his mother : i.e. “Haggith”.  See v. 5. 7 Joab. This is why his name is not in 2 Sam. 23.  See note on 2 Sam. 23:24.
8 mighty men. See 2 Sam. 23:8, 9, 16, 22. 9 En-rogel = well or spring of Rogel.  South side of Jerusalem, in the Kidron valley. the king. Some
codices with Syr., read “and the”, &c.


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1. 11. I KINGS. 1. 29.


11 Wherefore Nathan spake unto Bath-sheba the mother of Solomon, 1:11-14.   NATHAN AND BATH-SHEBA.
COUNTERACTION.
saying, Hast thou not heard that Adonijah the son of Haggith doth
11. Bath-sheba.   Danger.
reign, and David our lord knoweth it not?
12. Advice for David.
12 Now therefore come, let me, I pray thee, give thee counsel, that thou 13. Advice for Bath-sheba.
mayest save thine own soul, and the soul of thy son Solomon. 14. Bath-sheba.   Support.


*
13 Go and get thee in unto king David, and say unto him, Didst not 12 life = soul.  Heb. nephesh.  Ap. 13.
thou, my lord, O king, swear unto thine handmaid, saying, Assuredly 13 Didst not thou…? Fig. Erotesis.  Ap. 6.
why then…? Fig. Erotesis.  Ap. 6.  Some  codices,
Solomon thy son shall reign after me, and he shall sit upon my throne? with Aram., Sept., Syr., and Vulg., read “And behold”.
*
why then doth Adonijah reign?
16-27.      NATHAN AND BATH-SHEBA.
14 And behold, while thou yet talkest there with the king, I also will COUNTERACTION.


come in after thee, and confirm thy words.
16. Obeisance of Bath-sheba
15 And Bath-sheba went in unto the king into the chamber: and the king 17. Rightful successor? Nathan’s
was very old; and Abishag the Shunammite ministered unto the king. 18. Adonijah. advice
19. Feast. followed
16 And Bath-sheba bowed, and did obeisance unto the king.  And the
20, 21. Expectation.
king said [to her], What wouldest thou? 22, 23. Obeisance of Nathan. Nathan’s
17 And she said unto him, My lord [O king], thou swarest by the 24. Wrongful successor. promise
25-. Adonijah. fulfilled
LORD thy God unto thine handmaid, saying, Assuredly Solomon thy
-25, 26. Feast.
son shall reign after me, and he shall sit upon my throne. 27. Inquiry.
14
18 And now, behold, Adonijah reigneth; and now, my lord the king,
16 said. Some codices, with Syr. and Vulg., add "to
thou knowest it not:
her".
19 And he hath slain oxen and fat cattle and sheep in abundance, and 17 My lord. Some codices, with Sept. and Syr., add
hath called all the sons of the king, and Abiathar the priest, and Joab the "O king".
the Lord. Heb. Jehovah.  Ap. 4. II.
captain of the host:  but Solomon thy servant hath he not called.
God. Heb. Elohim.  Ap. 4. I.
20 And thou therefore, my lord, O king, the eyes of all Israel are upon 18 now. A special reading (Sevir, Ap. 34), with
thee, that thou shouldest tell them who shall sit on the throne of my lord three early printed editions, Aram., Sept., Syr., and
Vulg., read "thou".  But the Massorah (Ap. 30) says
the king after him.
the scribes were misled in reading 'attah (thou)


21 Otherwise it shall come to pass, when my lord the king shall sleep instead of 'attah (now).
with his fathers, that I and my son Solomon shall be counted 20 thou = thou therefore.  Some codices, with three
 early printed editions, and Aram., read "And now".
offenders.
See note on v. 18.
*
22 And, lo, while she yet talked with the king, Nathan the prophet also 21 sleep with his fathers. See note on Deut. 31.16.
came in. offenders. See Ap. 44. i.
* 22 lo. Fig. Asterismos.  Ap. 6.
23 And they told the king, saying, Behold Nathan the prophet. And
23 Behold. Fig. Asterismos.  Ap. 6.
when he was come in before the king, he bowed himself before the king
28-53.     SOLOMON.   RIGHTFUL
with his face to the ground. SUCCESSOR.


24 And Nathan said, My lord, O king, hast thou said, Adonijah shall 28-40. Proclamation and anointing.
reign after me, and he shall sit upon my throne? 41-53. Adonijah.   Rebellion quelled.


25 For he is gone down this day, and hath slain oxen and fat cattle and 29 soul. Heb. nephesh.  Ap. 13.
sheep in abundance, and hath called all the king's sons, and the captains
*
of the host, and Abiathar the priest; and, behold, they eat and drink
before him, and say, God save king Adonijah.
26 But me, even me thy servant, and Zadok the priest, and Benaiah the
son of Jehoiada, and thy servant Solomon, hath he not called.
27 Is this thing done by my lord the king, and thou hast not shewed it
unto thy servant, who should sit on the throne of my lord the king after
him?
28 Then king David answered and said, Call me Bath-sheba.  And she
came into the king's presence, and stood before the king.
29 And the king sware, and said, As the LORD liveth, that hath
redeemed my soul out of all distress,
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1. 30. I KINGS. 1. 53.


30 Even according as I sware unto thee by the LORD God of 30 as = according as.
33 mine own mule. David had not disobeyed Deut. 17:16, as
Israel, saying, Assuredly Solomon thy son shall reign after me,
Absalom had done (2 Sam. 15:1) and Adonijah (1 Kings 1:5).
and he shall sit upon my throne in my stead; even so will I 35 sit, &c. As associate king, Solomon being nineteen years of
certainly do this day. age. 39 tabernacle = tent.  Heb. ‘ohel.  Not the Tabernacle
31 Then Bath-sheba bowed with her face to the earth, and did at Gibeon, but David’s tabernacle (2 Sam. 6:17)  See Ap. 40.
40 piped with pipes = playing loudly on pipes.
reverence to the king, and said, Let my lord king David live for
Fig. Polyptoton Ap. 6.
ever. rejoiced with great joy =greatly rejoiced.
32 And king David said, Call me Zadok the priest, and Nathan the earth rent. Fig. Hyperbole.  Ap. 6.


the prophet, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada. And they came 41-53. ..... ADONIJAH.  REBELLION
before the king. QUELLED..


33 The king also said unto them, Take with you the servants of 41. Alarm.
 42-48. Tidings brought to Adonijah.
your lord, and cause Solomon my son to ride upon mine own 49, 50. Fear and flight.
mule, and bring him down to Gihon: 51-53. Tidings brought to Solomon.


34 And let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him 43 And = But. Jonathan. David’s faithful messenger of 2
there king over Israel: and blow ye with the trumpet, and say, Sam. 15:36 and 17:17.
God save king Solomon. Verily = of a truth; or, truth to tell.
44 Cherethites, &c. A bodyguard (1 Sam. 30:14).
35 Then ye shall come up after him, that he may come and sit [as 46 sitteth = hath taken [his] seat.
associate king] upon my throne; for he shall be king in my stead: 47 bowed = worshipped.  Cp. Gen. 47:31.
and I have appointed him to be ruler over Israel and over Judah. 52 shew himself Some codices, with one early printed edition,
add “toward me”.
36 And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada answered the king, and said,
worthy man = a son of valour.
Amen: the LORD God of my lord the king say so too. not an hair, &c. Fig. Paroemia.  Ap. 6.
37 According as the LORD hath been with my lord the king,
even so be He with Solomon, and make his throne greater than have heard.
the throne of my lord king David. 46 And also Solomon hath taken his seat on the
38 So Zadok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah throne of the kingdom.
the son of Jehoiada, and the Cherethites, and the Pelethites, 47 And moreover the king's servants came to bless our
went down, and caused Solomon to ride upon king David's lord king David, saying, God make the name of
mule, and brought him to Gihon. Solomon better than thy
39 And Zadok the priest took an horn of oil out of the tent, and name, and make his throne greater than thy throne.
anointed Solomon.  And they blew the trumpet; and all the And the king worshipped upon the bed.
People 48 And also thus said the king, Blessed be the LORD
said, God save king Solomon. God of Israel, Which hath given one to sit on my
throne this day, mine eyes even seeing it.
40 And all the People came up after him, and the People
* 49 And all the guests that were with Adonijah were
playing loudly on pipes, and greatly rejoiced, so that the earth
afraid, and rose up, and went every man his way.
rent with the sound of them.
50 And Adonijah feared because of Solomon, and
41 And Adonijah and all the guests that were with him heard it
arose, and went, and caught hold on the horns of the
as they had made an end of eating.  And when Joab heard the
altar.
sound of the trumpet, he said, Wherefore is this noise of the *
51 And it was told Solomon, saying, Behold, Adonijah
city being in an uproar? *
* feareth king Solomon:  for, lo, he hath caught hold on
42 And while he yet spake, behold, Jonathan the son of
the horns of the altar, saying, Let king Solomon swear
Abiathar the priest came:  and Adonijah said unto him, Come unto me to day that he will not slay his servant with the
in; for thou art a valiant man, and bringest good tidings. sword.


43 But Jonathan answered and said to Adonijah, Of a truth 52 And Solomon said, If he will shew himself [toward
our lord king David hath made Solomon king. *
me] a son of valour, there shall not an hair of him fall
44 And the king hath sent with him Zadok the priest, and to the earth: but if wickedness shall be found in him, he
Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and the shall die.


Cherethites, and the Pelethites, and they have caused him to 53 So king Solomon sent, and they brought him down
ride upon the king's mule: from the altar. And he came and bowed himself to king
45 And Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet have anointed Solomon: and Solomon said unto him, Go to thine
him king in Gihon:  and they are come up from thence house
rejoicing, so that the city rang again.  This is the noise that ye
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2. 1. I KINGS. 2. 15.


2:1-10. ADVICE OF DAVID TO SOLOMON.
2 Now the days of David drew nigh that he should die; and he
1-. David.  End near.
 -1-4. For good.  Solomon.
charged Solomon his son, saying,
 5, 6. For retribution.  Johab.
2 I go the way of all the earth:  be thou resolute therefore, and shew
7. For good.  Barzillai.
thyself a man; 8, 9. For retribution.  Shimei.
 10. David. Death.
3 And keep the charge of the LORD thy God, to walk in His ways,
and to keep His statutes, and His commandments, and His 1 charged. Cp. Josh. 1:6-9.
 2 the way of all the earth. Cp. Josh. 23:14.
judgments, and His testimonies, as it is written in the law of Moses, strong = resolute.  Necessary advice for Solomon = the
that thou mayest do wisely in all that thou doest, and whithersoever peaceable. man. Heb. ‘ish.  Ap. 14. II.
3 charge. Cp. Lev. 8:35;  18:30.
thou turnest thyself:
the Lord. Heb. Jehovah.  Ap. 4. II.
4 That the LORD may establish His word which He spake God. Heb.  Elohim.
concerning me, saying, If thy sons take heed to their way, to walk to keep. Some codices, with three early printed editions,
read “and to keep”, thus enlarging the Fig. Polysyndeton
before Me in truth with all their heart and with all their soul, there (Ap. 6) in this verse.
shall not be cut off from thee (said He) a man on the throne of Israel. as it is written. Cp. Deut. 17:18, 19.  Josh. 1:6-8.
 Note the emphasis laid on God’s Word written.  See note
5 Moreover thou knowest also what Joab the son of Zeruiah did to on Ex. 17:14, and Ap. 47.
me, and what he did to the two captains of the hosts of Israel, unto prosper do wisely. 4 continue = establish.
 children = sons.  Cp. 2 Sam. 7:8, 11-16.
Abner the son of Ner, and unto Amasa the son of Jether, whom he
soul.  Heb. nephesh.  Ap. 13. fail = be cut off from.
slew, and shed the blood of war in peace, and put the blood of war 5 Joab…Zeruiah. David’s own sister’s son.
upon his girdle that was about his loins, and in his shoes that were on did to me. David does not mention the worst sin, the death
of Absalom. Abner. Cp. 2 Sam. 3:27, 39.
his feet. Amasa. Cp. 2 Sam. 20:9-11.  1 Chron. 2:17.
6 Do therefore according to thy wisdom, and let not his hoar head go 6 the grave. Heb. Sheol.  Ap. 35.  Note “the”, not “a”.
 Cp. v. 9.
down to the grave in peace.
7 Barzillai. Cp. 2 Sam. 17:27, 29;  19:31, 32.


7 But shew kindness unto the sons of Barzillai the Gileadite, and let 8 Shimei. Cp. 2 Sam. 16:5-13; 19:18-23.
them be of those that eat at thy table:  for so they came to me when I I sware. Cp. 2 Sam. 19-23.
9 for. Note the parenthesis as indicated.  Fig. Epitrechon.
fled because of Absalom thy brother. but = neither, as in Ps. 38:1, the second negative being
* omitted, as is frequently the case.  Lit. “and [not]”.
8 And, behold, thou hast with thee Shimei the son of Gera, a
See Ps. 9:18 (R.V. nor);  38:1 (neither);  75:5.  Prov. 24:12;
Benjamite of Bahurim, which cursed me with a grievous curse in the
25:27.  Isa. 38:18.  The Ellipsis must be supplied here, as it
day when I went to Mahanaim:  but he came down to meet me at is in the above passages.  The Heb. Vav ( ) is disjunctive
 (as well as conjunctive), and is frequently translated “or”
Jordan, and I sware to him by the LORD, saying, I will not put thee
(see note on Judg. 11:31), and
to death with the sword. with a negative “nor” and “neither”, as it should be here,
9 Now therefore hold him not guiltless:  (for thou art a wise man, and &c.   Solomon obeyed David’s former alternative and did
 not “hold him guiltless” (v. 36); but punished
knowest what thou oughtest to do unto him); neither his hoar head him for a fresh offence (vv. 42-46).
6
bring thou down to the grave with blood. 2:12—11:43. SOLOMON.


10 So David slept with his fathers, and was buried in the city of 2:12-. Solomon. Accession.
David. 2:-12--11:40. Reign. Events.
11:40-42. Reign.  Record of events.
11 And the days that David reigned over Israel were forty years:
11:43-. Solomon.  Death and burial.


seven years reigned he in Hebron, and thirty and three years reigned 2:-12—11:40. REIGN.  EVENTS.


he in Jerusalem. 2:-12-46. Government.
 3:1. Marriage.
12 Then sat Solomon upon the throne of David his father; and his
3:2--10:29. Government.
kingdom was established greatly.
11:1-40. Marriages, &c.


13 And Adonijah the son of Haggith came to Bath-sheba the mother
2:-12-46. GOVERNMENT.


of Solomon.  And she said, Comest thou peaceably?  And he said, -12. Establishment of kingdom.
Peaceably. 13-25. Execution. Adonijah.
26, 27. Deposition.  Abiathar.
14 He said moreover, I have somewhat to say unto thee.  And she
28-34. Execution.  Joab.
said [unto him], Say on. 35. Substitution.  Benaiah and Zadok.
15 And he said, Thou knowest that the kingdom was mine, and that 36-46-. Execution. Shimei.
-46. Establishment of kingdom.
all Israel set their faces on me, that I should reign:  howbeit the
14 she said. Some codices, with two early printed
kingdom is turned about, and is become my brother's:  for it was his editions Sept., Syr., and Vulg., add “unto him”.
from the LORD.
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2. 16. I KINGS. 2. 36.


16 And now I ask one petition of thee, turn me not away.  And 2:13-25.   EXECUTION.  ADONIJAH.


she said unto him, Say on. 13-16. Bath-sheba.  Approached by Adonijah.
17. Adonijah’s request.
17 And he said, Speak, I pray thee, unto Solomon the king, (for he 18. Promise made.
will not turn thee away,) that he give me Abishag the 19, 20. Bath-sheba.  Approach to Solomon.
Shunammite to wife. 21. Adonijah’s request.
22-25. Promise fulfilled.  Result.
18 And Bath-sheba said, Good; I will speak for thee unto the
16 deny me not. Heb. idiom = "turn not away my face" :  face
king. being put by Fig. Synecdoche (of Part) for the whole person.  Ap. 6.
19 Bath-sheba therefore went unto king Solomon, to speak unto 17 say thee nay = turn away thy face.  See note above.
him for Adonijah.  And the king rose up to meet her, and bowed 18 Well = good.
19 seat = throne.
himself unto her, and sat down on his throne, and caused a throne 21 be given. The verb is masc., as it usually is when a woman acts
to be set for the king's mother; and she sat on his right hand. a man's part.
23 life = soul.  Heb. nephesh.  Ap. 13.
20 Then she said, I desire one small petition of thee; I pray thee,
24 as = according as. promised.  Cp. 2 Sam. 7. 12, 13.
turn me not away.  And the king said unto her, Ask on, my 26 Anathoth. Cp. Josh. 21. 18.
mother:  for I will not turn thee away. fields.  Some codices, with three early printed editions, Sept., Syr.,
 and Vulg., read "estate".
21 And she said, Let Abishag the Shunammite be given to
worthy of death. Heb. idiom = "a man of death'' =doomed to death.
Adonijah thy brother to wife. Heb. 'ish.    Ap. 14. II.
22 And king Solomon answered and said unto his mother, And Lord GOD = Adonai Jehovah.  Ap. 4. II, and VIII (2).
27 fulfil.  Cp. l Sam. 2. 31, 36.  Already partly fulfilled (l Sam. 4.
why dost thou ask Abishag the Shunammite for Adonijah?  ask
11;  and now, wholly, in v. 35).
for him the kingdom also; for he is mine elder brother; even for Shiloh. Cp. l Sam. 2. 35.
him, and for Abiathar the priest, and for Joab the son of Zeruiah. 28 Absalom. Syr. and Vulg. read "Solomon".
tabernacle. Heb. 'ohel, tent.  See Ap. 40.
23 Then king Solomon sware by the LORD, saying, God do so to 30 Nay; but…here. The famous Mugah codex quoted in the
me, and more also, if Adonijah have not spoken this word against Massorah adds "to him".  Ap. 30.
his own soul. 32 men. Heb. 'enosh.  Ap. 14. III.
36 any whither. Fig. Paronomasia.  Ap. 6.  Heb.'aneh va anah =
24 Now therefore, as the LORD liveth, Which hath established hither and thither.
me, and set me on the throne of David my father, and Who hath


made me an house, according as He promised, Adonijah
shall be put to death this day.
25 And king Solomon sent by the hand of Benaiah the son 31 And the king said unto him, Do according as he hath
of Jehoiada; and he fell upon him that he died. said, and fall upon him, and bury him; that thou mayest
26 And unto Abiathar the priest said the king, Get thee to take away the innocent blood, which Joab shed, from me,
 and from the house of my father.
Anathoth, unto thine own estate; for thou art doomed to
death:  but I will not at this time put thee to death, because 32 And the LORD shall return his blood upon his own
thou barest the ark of the Lord GOD before David my head, who fell upon two men more righteous and better
father, and because thou hast been afflicted in all wherein than he, and slew them with the sword, my father David
my father was afflicted. not knowing thereof, to wit, Abner the son of Ner, captain
27 So Solomon thrust out Abiathar from being priest unto of the host of Israel, and Amasa the son of Jether, captain
 of the host of Judah.
the LORD; that he might fulfil the word of the LORD,
 33 Their blood shall therefore return upon the head of
which He spake concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh.
28 Then tidings came to Joab:  for Joab had turned after Joab, and upon the head of his seed for ever:  but upon
Adonijah, though he turned not after Solomon.  And Joab David, and upon his seed, and upon his house, and upon
 his throne, shall there be peace for ever from the LORD.
fled unto the tabernacle of the LORD, and caught hold on
the horns of the altar. 34 So Benaiah the son of Jehoiada went up, and fell upon
him, and slew him:  and he was buried in his own house in
29 And it was told king Solomon that Joab was fled unto the
28 * the wilderness.
tabernacle of the LORD; and, behold, he is by the altar.
35 And the king put Benaiah the son of Jehoiada in his
Then Solomon sent Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, saying, Go,
room over the host:  and Zadok the priest did the king put
fall upon him.
in the room of Abiathar.
30 And Benaiah came to the tabernacle of the LORD, and
36 And the king sent and called for Shimei, and said unto
said unto him, Thus saith the king, Come forth. And he said,
 him, Build thee an house in Jerusalem, and dwell there,
Nay; but I will die here.  And Benaiah brought the king
and go not forth hither and thither.
word again, saying, Thus said Joab, and thus he answered
me.
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2. 37. I KINGS. 3. 7.


 37 on the day. Same as Gen. 2. 17.  Here several days
37 For it shall be, that on the day thou goest out, and passest over the
 must have elapsed.
brook Kidron, thou shalt know for certain that thou shalt surely die: shalt surely die. Fig. Polyptoton. Ap. 6. Heb. "a dying thou
thy blood shall be upon thyself. shalt die", as in Gen. 2. 17.
38 And Shimei said unto the king, The saying is good: according as my thine own head = thyself, "head" being put by Fig,
Synecdoche (of the Part) for the whole person. Ap. 6. See
lord the king hath said, so will thy servant do.  And Shimei dwelt in note on 2. 9.
Jerusalem many days. 39 Gath. Sixty-four miles away.  Therefore the expression
39 And it came to pass at the end of three years, that two of the servants "in the day" must refer to a longer period.
3. 1 affinity = relationship by marriage.
of Shimei ran away unto Achish son of Maachah king of Gath.  And
* 3:2—10:29. GOVERNMENT.
they told Shimei, saying, Behold, thy servants be in Gath.
3:2-15. First appearance of Jehovah to
40 And Shimei arose, and saddled his ass, and went to Gath to Achish to
Solomon.
seek his servants:  and Shimei went, and brought his servants from 3:16-4:34. Wisdom and riches.  Two women.
Gath. 5:1-12. Contract with Hiram.
5:13-18. Levy.
41 And it was told Solomon that Shimei had gone from Jerusalem to
6:1-8:66. Temple.  (part).
Gath, and was come again. 9:1-9. Second appearance of Jehovah to
42 And the king sent and called for Shimei, and said unto him, Did I not Solomon.
9:10-14. Contract with Hiram.
make thee to swear by the LORD, and protested unto thee, saying,
9:15-24. Levy.
Know for a certain, on the day thou goest out, and walkest abroad any 9:25. Temple (general).
wither, that thou shalt surely die? and thou saidst unto me, The word 9:26-10:29 Riches and wisdom.  One woman
(queen of Sheba).
that I have heard is good.
2 Only. May imply regret rather than censure.  Cp. 15:14,
43 Why then hast thou not kept the oath of the LORD, and the &c. in high places. Deut. 12:11, 14, 26, 27, not obeyed
commandment that I have charged thee with? since Jehovah had forsaken Shiloh.  Cp. Ps. 78:60, 67-69.
44 The king said moreover to Shimei, Thou knowest all the Jer. 7:12-14.


 3:2-15. FIRST APPEARANCE OF
wickedness which thine heart is privy to, that thou didst to David my
JEHOVAH TO SOLOMON.
father: therefore the LORD shall return thy wickedness upon thine own
head; 2-4. Solomon’s worship at Gibeon.
45 And king Solomon shall be blessed, and the throne of David shall be 5-. Dream.
-5. Jehovah. Offer.
established before the LORD for ever. 6-9. Solomon. Choice.
46 So the king commanded Benaiah the son of Jehoiada; which went 10. Jehovah. Approbation.
11-14. Solomon. Gifts.
out, and fell upon him, that he died.  And the kingdom was established
15-. Dream.
in the hand of Solomon. -15. Solomon’s worship at Jerusalem.


3 And Solomon made relationship by marriage with Pharaoh king of 3 statutes of David. Contrast "the statutes of Omri"
(Mic.6.16), and"statutes of the heathen" (2 Kings 17. 8).
Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of high places. Not necessarily idolatrous (see note on v. 2,
David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the and cp. 1 Chron. 16. 39; 21. 29. 2Chron. 1. 3, 13), though
perhaps copied from Canaanites.  Practice too deeply rooted
house of the LORD, and the wall of Jerusalem round about. for even Asa and Hezekiah to remove.  Josiah it was who


2 Only the people sacrificed in high places, because there was no finally desecrated them.   Anglo-Saxon =Hoes.
house built unto the name of the LORD, until those days. 4 Gibeon =a high place, where the Tabernacle was. Cp.
 Josh. 9. 3.  2 Sam. 2. 12, 13.
3 And Solomon loved the LORD, walking in the statutes of David his offer = offer up.  See Ap. 43. I. vi.
2
father: only he sacrificed and burnt incense in high places. 5 dream. One of the twenty in Scripture.  See note on Gen.
4 And the king went to Gibeon [a high place where the Tabernacle 20. 3.  God.  Heb. Elohim.  Ap. 4.
6 said : i.e. in his sleep.  Cp. v. 15.  See note on Ps. 127. 2.
was] to sacrifice there; for that was the great high place:  a thousand mercy = grace, or lovingkindness.
burnt offerings did Solomon offer up upon that altar. 7 a little child. In his father's eyes a "wise man"  (2. 6, 9).
 I know not = I shall not know.  Some codices, with Sept.,
5 In Gibeon the LORD appeared to Solomon in a dream by night:  and
Syr., and Vulg., read "and know not", indicating the Fig.
God said, Ask what I shall give thee. Polysyndeton here, and in the following verses.  Ap. 6.
6 And Solomon said [in his sleep], Thou hast shewed unto Thy servant to go out or come in. Cp. Num. 27. 17. Fig. Synecdoche
(of Part).  Ap. 6.  Put for whole manner of life.
David my father great mercy, according as he walked before Thee in
truth, and in righteousness, and in uprightness of heart with Thee; and
Thou hast kept for him this great kindness, that Thou hast given him a
son to sit on his throne, as it is this day.
7 And now, O LORD my God, Thou hast made Thy servant king


instead of David my father:  and I am but a little child: I shall not


know how to go out or come in.
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3. 8. I KINGS. 4. 2.


8 And thy servant is in the midst of Thy People which Thou hast 9 Give. Cp. 2 Chron. 1: 10.
understanding = hearing.  Solomon began by asking
chosen, a great People, that cannot be numbered nor counted for wisdom from God.  Rehoboam (his son) began by asking counsel
multitude. from man (12:6, 8).
 12 like thee. Supply Fig. Ellipsis, by adding “among the kings”
9 Give therefore thy servant a hearing heart to judge Thy People,
from v. 13 and 10:23.
that I may discern between good and bad:  for who is able to judge 13 any = a man.  Heb. ‘ish.  Ap. 14. II.
this Thy so great a People? 14 as = according as. thy father David. Cp. 15:5.
10 And the speech pleased the Lord, that Solomon had asked this 15 offered = prepared.  See Ap. 43. I. iii.  Showing that the
Ceremonial Law was in writing before the days of Solomon, and
thing. not a later production, as asserted and assumed by some.


11 And God said unto him, Because thou hast asked this thing, and 3:16—4:34. WISDOM AND RICHES.


hast not asked for thyself long life; neither hast asked riches for 3:16-28. Wisdom.
thyself, nor hast asked the life of thine enemies; but hast asked for 4:1-28. Dominion and riches.
4:29-34. Wisdom.
thyself understanding to discern judgment;
3:16-28. WISDOM.
12 Behold, I have done according to thy words: lo, I have given
16-22. Case propounded.
thee a wise and an understanding heart; so that there was none like
23-25. Sentence pronounced.
thee [among the kings] before thee, neither after thee shall any 26. Case withdrawn.
arise like unto thee. 27, 28. Judgment executed.


13 And I have also given thee that which thou hast not asked, both 18 there was no stranger. Some codices, with Sept., Syr., and
Vulg., read “and there was no stranger”.
riches, and honour:  so that there shall not be a man among the
12 19 child = son. overlaid. One of the ten deaths
kings like unto thee all thy days. occasioned by women.  See note on Judg. 4:21.
14 And if thou wilt walk in My ways, to keep My statutes and My 22 spake = talked [very much].  Fig. Ellipsis (Ap. 6), to be
 supplied.
commandments, according as thy father David did walk, then I
26 said = kept on saying.
will lengthen thy days. 28 wisdom of God = Divine wisdom.  Genitive of Character.
* See Ap. 17, and cp. note on v. 9 above.
15 And Solomon awoke; and, behold, it was a dream.  And he
came to Jerusalem, and stood before the ark of the covenant of the 4:1-28. DOMINION AND RICHES.


4 1-19. Solomon.  Riches (officers).
LORD, and offered up burnt offerings, and prepared peace
20. People.  Prosperity.




offerings, and made a feast to all his servants. 21. Solomon.  Dominion (foreign).
16 Then came there two women, that were harlots, unto the king, 22-23. People.  Provision.
and stood before him. 24. Solomon.  Dominion (foreign).
25. People.  Security.
17 And the one woman said, O my lord, I and this woman dwell in 26-28. Solomon.  Riches (officers).


one house; and I was delivered of a child with her in the house.
18 And it came to pass the third day after that I was delivered, 24 And the king said, Bring me a sword.  And
that this woman was delivered also:  and we were together; they brought a sword before the king.
and there was no stranger with us in the house, save we two 25 And the king said, Divide the living child in
in the house. two, and give half to the one, and half to the other.
19 And this woman's son died in the night; because she 26 Then spake the woman whose the living child
 was unto the king, for her bowels yearned upon
overlaid it.
20 And she arose at midnight, and took my son from beside her son, and she said, O my lord, give her the
living child, and in no wise slay it.  But the other
me, while thine handmaid slept, and laid it in her bosom, and
kept on saying, Let it be neither mine nor thine,
laid her dead child in my bosom.
but divide it.
21 And when I rose in the morning to give my child suck,
* 27 Then the king answered and said, Give her the
behold, it was dead:  but when I had considered it in the
living child, and in no wise slay it:  she is the
morning, behold, it was not my son, which I did bear.
mother thereof.
22 And the other woman said, Nay; but the living is my son,
28 And all Israel heard of the judgment which the
and the dead is thy son.  And this said, No; but the dead is thy
king had judged; and they feared the king:  for
son, and the living is my son.  Thus they talked very much
they saw that the Divine wisdom was in him, to do
before the king.
judgment.
23 Then said the king, The one saith, This is my son that
4 So king Solomon was king over all Israel.
liveth, and thy son is the dead:  and the other saith, Nay; but
thy son is the dead, and my son is the living. 2 And these were the princes which he had; Azariah
the son of Zadok the priest,
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4. 3. I KINGS. 4. 29.


3 Elihoreph and Ahiah, the sons of Shisha, scribes; Jehoshaphat the 5 Nathan. Probably David’s son.  Cp. Luke 3:31.
principle officer =priest.  See Heb. (2 Sam. 8:18).
son of Ahilud, the recorder.
the  king's  friend, as Hushai had been David's (2 Sam. 15.
4 And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada was over the host:  and Zadok 37).
and Abiathar were the priests: 7 twelve officers. Cp. David's twelve  captains (lChron. 27.
 2-15).
5 And Azariah the son of Nathan was over the officers:  and Zabud
8 mount = hill country.
the son of Nathan was principal officer, and the king's friend:
9 Elon-beth-hanan. Some codices, with three early printed
6 And Ahishar was over the household:  and Adoniram the son of editions, read "Elon-ben-hanan".  Other codices read "Elon
Abda was over the tribute. and Beth-han.an".  Sept. reads "Elon as far as Beth-hanan ".
 11 Dor. Cp. Josh. 11. 2; 12. 23; 17. 11.
7 And Solomon had twelve officers over all Israel, which provided
12 Abel-meholah. The country of Elisha (19.16, 21). Cp.
victuals for the king and his household:  each man his month in a Judg. 7. 22.
year made provision. 13 Ramoth-gilead. In the tribe of Gad.  Famous for Ahab's
8 And these are their names: The son of Hur, in hill country last battle (22. 20). Cp. Josh. 20. 8. Judg. 11. 29.
region. A sharply defined border, defining the rocky
Ephraim:
rampart encircling the "Lejah" as it is called to-day.
9 The son of Dekar, in Makaz, and in Shaalbim, and Beth-shemesh, Argob =Edrei, one of "the giant cities of Bashan".  See Ap.
 23 and 25.
and Elon-beth-hanan:
10 The son of Hesed, in Aruboth; to him pertained Sochoh, and all 14 Mahanaim. Cp. Gen. 32. 2.   Josh. 13. 26.
16 Hushai. See note on v. 5,
the land of Hepher: 19 he = Geber. officer. Not the same word as in v. 7.


11 The son of Abinadab, in all the region of Dor; which had in the land = in the land [of Bashan].
Taphath the daughter of Solomon to wife: 20 as the sand. Fig. Paroemia. Ap. 6.  Cp. Gen.13. 16.
sea. Some codices, with Syr., read "sea shore".
12 Baana the son of Ahilud; to him pertained Taanach and Megiddo,
21 the river = the Euphrates.  Cp. Gen. 15. 18, &c.
and all Beth-shean, which is by Zartanah beneath Jezreel, from Beth- unto = even unto.  Cp. 2 Chron. 9. 26.
 brought presents. Cp. Ps. 72. 10, 11.
shean to Abel-meholah, even unto the place that is beyond
Jokneam: 22 provision. Heb. bread, put by Fig. Synecdoche (of the
 Species) for all kinds of food.  Ap. 6.
13 The son of Geber, in Ramoth-gilead; to him pertained the towns
24 on this side, or beyond.
of Jair the son of Manasseh, which are in Gilead; to him also safely = confidently,
 Dan even to Beer-sheba. The two extremities. Cp. Judg.
pertained the region of Edrei, which is in Bashan, threescore great
20. 1 and 1 Sam. 3. 20, &c.
cities with walls and brasen bars:
 26 forty thousand. In 2 Chron. 9:25 it is 4,000, which is
14 Ahinadab the son of Iddo had Mahanaim: much more likely to be correct.  The 12.000 are the same in
15 Ahimaaz was in Naphtali; he also took Basmath the daughter of both places.  The ancient Hebrew characters were
Solomon to wife: Phoenician, and may be seen on the Moabite Stone.  These
were in current use till about 140 B.C, and were gradually
16 Baanah the son of Hushai was in Asher and in Aloth:
replaced by the modern Hebrew "square" characters.
17 Jehoshaphat the son of Paruah, in Issachar: Mistakes in copying occurred through the similarity of
18 Shimei the son of Elah, in Benjamin: certain letters.  See notes on 2Sam. 24. 10.  Jer. 3. 8.  Ezek.
19 Geber the son of Uri was in the country of Gilead, in the country 6. 4;  22. 20. horses. A breach of Deut. 17.16.  It began by
breeding mules (1. 33, 38, 44), which was a breach of Lev.
of Sihon king of the Amorites, and of Og king of Bashan; and Geber 19. 19). 29 exceeding great = very great.


was the only officer which was in the land of Bashan.
*
20 Judah and Israel were many, as the sand which is by the sea in
multitude, eating and drinking, and making merry.


21 And Solomon reigned over all kingdoms from the Euphrates vine and under his fig tree, from Dan even to Beer-
even unto the land of the Philistines, and unto the border of sheba, all the days of Solomon.


Egypt:  they brought presents, and served Solomon all the days 26 And Solomon had forty thousand stalls of
of his life. horses for his chariots, and twelve thousand
22 And Solomon's food for one day was thirty measures of fine horsemen.
flour, and threescore measures of meal, 27 And those officers provided victual for king
23 Ten fat oxen, and twenty oxen out of the pastures, and an Solomon, and for all that came unto king Solomon's
table, every man in his month: they lacked nothing.
hundred sheep, beside harts, and roebucks, and fallowdeer, and
28 Barley also and straw for the horses and
fatted fowl.
dromedaries brought they unto the place where the
24 For he had dominion over all the region beyond the
officers were, every man according to his charge.
Euphrates, from Tiphsah even to Azzah, over all the kings on this
29 And God gave Solomon wisdom and
side the river: and he had peace on all sides round about him.
understanding very great, and largeness of heart,
25 And Judah and Israel dwelt confidently, every man under his *
even as the sand that is on the sea shore.
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4. 30. I KINGS. 5. 13.


30 And Solomon's wisdom excelled the wisdom of all the sons of 30 children = sons.
31 all men = any man.
the east country, and all the wisdom of Egypt.
 men. Heb. 'adam, with Art. (Ap. 14. I) = any human being.
31 For he was wiser than any human being;  than Ethan the Ethan. The same four names occur among the sons of Zerah the
Ezrahite, and Heman, and Chalcol, and Darda, the sons of son of Judah (l Chron. 2. 6), except Dara for Darda; but cp. l
Mahol:  and his name was in all nations round about. Chron. 6. 44 and 33.
 fame = name.
32 And he spake three thousand proverbs:  and his songs were
32 proverbs. Some included in the book of that name.
a thousand and five. songs.  Cp. Ps. 72 and 127.
33 And he spake of trees, from the cedar tree that is in Lebanon 34 people = peoples.  Cp. ch. 10.


even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall:  he spake 5. 1—12. CONTRACT WITH HIRAM.


also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of fishes. l.     Hiram and Solomon.  Congratulations.
34 And there came of all peoples to hear the wisdom of 2-6-.   Timber required.
-6.     Payment.
Solomon, from all kings of the earth, which had heard of his
7-10.  Timber required.
wisdom. 11.    Payment.
 12.    Hiram and Solomon.  Covenant.
5 And Hiram king of Tyre sent his servants unto Solomon;
1 Hiram. Born of a Jewish mother (7:14. 2 Chron. 2:14).
for he had heard that they had anointed him king in the room of lover = ally, Hebrews always at amity with the Phoenicians.
his father:  for Hiram was ever a ally of David. Never with Canaanites.
2 And Solomon sent to Hiram, saying, 3 Thou knowest. Cp. 2 Sam. 5. 11. l Chron. 14. l;  22. 4.
 could not. There were three reasons altogether: (1) not the time
3 Thou knowest how that David my father could not build an (2 Sam. 7);  (2) not the opportunity (lKings 5. 3);  (3) not the man
house unto the name of the LORD his God for the wars which (l Chron. 22. 8; 28. 3, &c).
were about him on every side, until the LORD put them under the LORD. Heb. Jehovah.  Ap. 4. II.
God. Heb. Elohim.    Ap. 4. I.
the soles of his feet.
4 adversary. Heb. satan.
4 But now the LORD my God hath given me rest on every side, 5 as the LORD spake = according as Jehovah spake. Cp. 2 Sam.
 7. 12, 13.  l Chron. 17. 11, 12.
so that there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent.
5 And, behold, I purpose to build an house unto the name of the 6 any = a man.    Heb. 'ish. Ap. 14. II.
8 sent: i. e. wrote.  Cp. 2 Chron. 2. 11. See note on Ex. 17. 14,
LORD my God, according as Jehovah spake unto David my
and Ap. 47.
father, saying, Thy son, whom I will set upon thy throne in thy fir. Or, cypress.
room, he shall build an house unto My name. 9 bring them down. Note the illustration in the conversion of
sinners.  Cut down from nature's standing; down through the
6 Now therefore command thou that they hew me cedar trees out
waters of death (Rom. 6. 11), before finding their place in the
of Lebanon; and my servants shall be with thy servants:  and unto temple of God (Eph. 2. 20-22). Same with the stones. See note on
thee will I give hire for thy servants according to all that thou v. 17.
shalt appoint: for thou knowest that there is not among us a man 10 gave =continued to give.  Cp. Ps. 45. 12.
11 gave. Not the same as 2 Chron. 2. 10.  That was for Hiram's
that can skill to hew timber like unto the Sidonians.
workmen in Lebanon.  This was for his royal household at Tyre.
7 And it came to pass, when Hiram heard the words of Solomon, measures. See Ap. 51. III. 3.
that he rejoiced greatly, and said, Blessed be the LORD this day, pure = bruised (as in a mortar), not crushed in a press.
Which hath given unto David a wise son over this great People. 12 as = according as.    Cp. 3. 12.
league = a covenant.  For breaking which Tyre was judged later.
8 And Hiram wrote to Solomon, saying, I have considered the See Amos 1. 9.
things which thou sentest to me for: and I will do all thy desire 13 levy =tribute of men for free labour, not the bond service of 9.
concerning timber of cedar, and concerning timber of cypress. 21, 22. Cp. 4. 6. 2 Sam. 20. 24. Foretold in 1 Sam. 8. 16. David
 employed forced service of resident aliens (1 Chron. 22. 2 ; and
9 My servants shall bring them down from Lebanon unto the
notes on 2 Sam, 12. 31).
sea: and I will convey them by sea in floats unto the place that
thou shalt appoint me, and will cause them to be discharged
there, and thou shalt receive them:  and thou shalt accomplish my
desire, in giving food for my household.
10 So Hiram continued to give Solomon cedar trees and
cypress trees according to all his desire.
 promised him:  and there was peace between Hiram and
11 And Solomon gave Hiram twenty thousand measures of
wheat for food to his household, and twenty measures of Solomon; and they two made a covenant together.
bruised oil:  thus gave Solomon to Hiram year by year. 13 And king Solomon raised a tribute of men for free
12 And the LORD gave Solomon wisdom, according as He labour out of all Israel; and the levy was thirty thousand
 men.
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5. 14. I KINGS. 6. 12.


14 And he sent them to Lebanon ten thousand a month by courses:  a 17 brought = quarried.
great stones. These stones illustrate the work of
month they were in Lebanon, and two months at home:  and
conversion in the sinner.  Hewed out of nature's dark
Adoniram was over the levy. quarry (Isa. 51. 1, 2), out and carved for a place in the
15 And Solomon had threescore and ten thousand that bare burdens, temple of glory (Eph. 2. 20-22).
18 stonesquarers = men of Gebal, or Giblites, as Ezek.
and fourscore thousand hewers in the mountains;
27. 9, now Jubeil, forty miles north of Sidon.  Cp. Ps. 83.
16 Beside the chief of Solomon's officers which were over the work, 7.   Phoenician masons' marks still visible on them.
three thousand and three hundred, which ruled over the people that so = and.
 6. 1—8. 66…THE TEMPLE.
wrought in the work.
 (PARTICULAR.)
17 And the king commanded, and they quarried great stones, costly
1-38.       The Temple.
stones, and hewed stones, to lay the foundation of the house. 7:1-12.   Other buildings.
18 And Solomon's builders and Hiram's builders did hew them, and 7:13—8:66.   The Temple.
the men of Gebal: and they prepared timber and stones to build the . 6. 1-38 .       THE TEMPLE.


house.
 1.            Date of commencement,
 2-8.          Exterior of house.
6 And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after
 9,10.        Completion.
the sons of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth 11-13.       Word of Jehovah.
year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in the month Zif, which is the 14.          Completion.
second month, that he began to build the Temple. 15-36.        Interior of house.
 37, 38.         Date of completion.
2 And the house which king Solomon built for the LORD, the length



thereof was threescore cubits, and the breadth thereof twenty cubits, 1 four hundred and eightieth year. Note max the
and the height thereof thirty cubits. number is Ordinal (not Cardinal) = the 480th year of
3 some longer and larger period, viz. the 490 years from
3 And the porch before the temple of the house, twenty cubits was
the Exodus to the Dedication of the Temple; the
the length thereof, in the front of the breadth of the house; and ten difference of ten years being made up of seven years in
cubits was the breadth thereof before the house. building (v. 38) and three years in furnishing.  Dedicated
not in seventh year, for Completion took place in the
4 And for the house he made windows of narrow lights.
eighth month of one year (v. 38), and the Dedication in
5 And against the wall of the house he built chambers round about, the seventh month of another (8. 2).  The chronological
against the walls of the house round about, both of the temple and of period was 40 years in wilderness + 450 years under
 judges + 40 years of Saul + 40 years of David + 3 years
the oracle:  and he made chambers round about:
of Solomon (v. l) = 573 (from 1490-917).  The mystical
2
6 The nethermost chamber was five cubits broad, and the middle period of 480 years is obtained by deducting the period
was six cubits broad, and the third was seven cubits broad:  for of 93 years, when Israel's national position was in
abeyance.  Thus :  8 (Judg. 3. 8) + 18 (Judg. 3. 14) + 20
without in the wall of the house he made narrowed rests round about,
(Judg. 4. 3) + 7 (Judg. 6. l) + 40 (Judg. 13. 1) = 93. (N.B.
that the beams should not be fastened in the walls of the house. The eighteen years of Judg. 10. 7, 9, was local and
7 And the house, when it was in building, was built of stone made beyond Jordan.  It did not affect the national position).
Hence 573-93 = 480 (from 873-93).
perfect [in the quarries afar off] before it was brought thither:  so
children = sons.


that there was neither hammer nor axe nor any tool of iron heard in the house of the LORD = the Temple.  Similar in plan
the house, while it was in building. to the Tabernacle, but double the size.
the LORD.   Heb. Jehovah.   Ap. 4.
8 The door for the middle chamber was in the right side of the house:


and they went up with winding stairs into the middle chamber, and 6. 2-8…..EXTERIOR OF HOUSE.
out of the middle into the third.
 2.          House.  Dimensions.
9 So he built the house, and finished it; and covered the house with 3-6.       Accessories.  Porch, &c,
beams and boards of cedar. 7.          House.  Materials.
10 And then he built chambers against all the house, five cubits high: 8.          Accessories.  Door, &c.
2 cubits. See Ap. 51. III. 2.
and they rested on the house with timber of cedar. 3 according to. Or, in the front of,
11 And the word of the LORD came to Solomon, saying, 5 oracle. See note on 2 Sam. 16. 23.
12 Concerning this house which thou art in building, if thou wilt 7 made ready = made perfect.
before : i. e. in the quarries afar off, or beneath the city.
walk in My statutes, and execute My judgments, and keep all My heard. So in the spiritual house.  Eph. 2. 20-22.
commandments to walk in them; then will I perform My word with 12 which I spake unto David. Cp. 2 Sam. 7. 13.
thee, which I spake unto David thy father: 1Chron. 22. 10.
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6. 13. I KINGS. 6. 38.


13 And I will dwell in the midst of the sons of Israel, and will 13 among = in the midst of.


not forsake My people Israel. 6. 15-36 ..... INTERIOR OF HOUSE.
14 So Solomon built the house, and finished it.
 15.       Covering.  Walls, within, covered, cedar.
15 And he built the walls of the house within with boards of
 16, 17. Oracle.  Dimensions.
cedar, both the floor of the house, and the walls of the cieling: 18.       Covering.  Walls, within, carved, cedar.
 l9, 20.  Oracle.  Ark, &c.
and he covered them on the inside with wood, and covered the
 21, 22. Covering.  Walls, within, gold.
floor of the house with planks of fir. 23-29.  Oracle.  Cherubim.
16 And he built twenty cubits on the sides of the house, both the 30.       Covering.  Floor, covered, gold.
 31-36.  Oracle.  Entrances.
floor and the walls with boards of cedar:  he even built them for
5 15 covered. Note that all the stonework was covered with cedar
it within, even for the oracle, even for the most holy place. wood;  and the cedar wood covered with gold.  Even so the saved
17 And the house, that is, the temple before it, was forty cubits sinner is covered with Christ's human and Divine righteousness
long. imputed to him.
Cp. Luke 15. 22.  Phil. 3. 9.
18 And the cedar of the house within was carved with knops
18 no stone seen. Fig. Pleonasm. Ap. 6.  Words not necessary


and open flowers:  all was cedar; there was no stone seen. for grammar, or sense;  but used to emphasize the completeness of
5 our covering by Christ's merits. Cp. Eph. 1. 6.  Col. 1. 28; 2. 10;
19 And the oracle he prepared in the house within, to set there
4. 12.
the ark of the covenant of the LORD.
5 20 overlaid. See note on covered, 15 and 18.
20 And the oracle in the forepart was twenty cubits in length, 22 whole house. Fig. Synecdoche (of Whole).  Ap. 6. Put for
and twenty cubits in breadth, and twenty cubits in the height every part of it.
 15 23 two cherubims. See Ap. 41.
thereof:  and he overlaid it with pure gold; and so covered the
olive tree = oil tree, as in Isa. 41. 19:  rendered pine (Neh. 8. 15);
altar which was of cedar.
20 but, Oleaster according to Tristram.
21 So Solomon overlaid the house within with pure gold:  and 32 two doors = two-leaved (or double) doors.
he made a partition by the chains of gold before the oracle; and 33 door = entrance.
he overlaid it with gold. 37 Zif. The second month.
20 38 eighth month. See note on v. 1, and cp. Dedication later, in
22 And the every part of the house he overlaid with gold, until "seventh month" (8. 2); so that more than one, and probably three,
he had finished all the house:  also the whole altar that was by years in completing the appointments. parts =
5 appointments.
the oracle he overlaid with gold.
5 seven years. See note on v. 1.  Seven years for the building itself,
23 And within the oracle he made two cherubims of olive
and probably three years for the "appointments".  Contrast these
tree, each ten cubits high. seven with the thirteen of 7. 1, and see Ap. 10.
24 And five cubits was the one wing of the cherub, and five
cubits the other wing of the cherub:  from the uttermost part
of the one
wing unto the uttermost part of the other were ten cubits. 32 The double doors also were of olive tree; and he
25 And the other cherub was ten cubits: both the carved upon them carvings of cherubims and palm trees
cherubims were of one measure and one size. and open flowers, and overlaid them with gold, and
spread gold upon the cherubims, and upon the palm
26 The height of the one cherub was ten cubits, and so was
trees.
it of the other cherub.
33 So also made he for the entrance of the temple posts
27 And he set the cherubims within the inner house:  and
of olive tree, a fourth part of the wall.
they stretched forth the wings of the cherubims, so that the
34 And the two doors were of fir tree:  the two leaves of
wing of the one touched the one wall, and the wing of the the one door were folding, and the two leaves of the
other cherub touched the other wall; and their wings other door were folding.
touched one another in the midst of the house. 35 And he carved thereon cherubims and palm trees and
20
28 And he overlaid the cherubims with gold. open flowers:  and covered them with gold fitted upon
29 And he carved all the walls of the house round about the carved work.
with carved figures of cherubims and palm trees and open 36 And he built the inner court with three rows of hewed
flowers, within and without. stone, and a row of cedar beams.
20 37 In the fourth year was the foundation of the house of
30 And the floor of the house he overlaid with gold,
the LORD laid, in the [second month] month Zif:
within and without.
5 38 And in the eleventh year, in the month Bul, which is
31 And for the entering of the oracle he made doors of
the eighth month, was the house finished throughout all
olive tree: the lintel and side posts were a fifth part of the
the appointments thereof, and according to all the
wall.
fashion of it.  So was he seven years in building it.
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7. 1. I KINGS. 7. 20.


5 doors = entrances.
7 But Solomon was building his own house thirteen years, and he 9 sawed with saws. Fig. Ployptoton.  Ap. 6.


finished all his house. 13—8. 66…..   THE  TEMPLE.
7.
2 He built also the house of the forest of Lebanon; the length thereof 7:13-51.          The work itself.
was an hundred cubits, and the breadth thereof fifty cubits, and the 8:1-66.            The dedication of the work.
height thereof thirty cubits, upon four rows of cedar pillars, with
7 . 13-51……..   THE WORK.
cedar beams upon the pillars.
3 And it was covered with cedar above upon the beams, that lay on 13,14-.            The worker.
forty five pillars, fifteen in a row. -14-51.            The works.


4 And there were windows in three rows, and light was against light 12 the LORD. Heb. Jehovah.  Ap. 4. II.
in three ranks. 14 a widow's. One of nine widows specially mentioned.   See
note on Gen. 38. 19.
5 And all the entrances and posts were square, with the windows:
Naphtali : by marriage. By birth, of Dan (2 Chron. 2. 14).  Dan
and light was against light in three ranks. furnished Aholiab, one of the builders of the Tabernacle (Ex. 31.
6 And he made a porch of pillars; the length thereof was fifty cubits, 6).
cunning = knowing, or skilful.  Cp. l Sam. 16. 18.
and the breadth thereof thirty cubits:  and the porch was before
1 Chron. 22. 15.
them: and the other pillars and the thick beam were before them. works in brass = castings in bronze.  These were the subjects of
7 Then he made a porch for the throne where he might judge, even later prophecy (Jer. 27. 19), fulfilled in
2 Kings 25. 13-17.
the porch of judgment:  and it was covered with cedar from one side
7:-14-51. THE WORKS.
of the floor to the other.
-14-40. Description.
8 And his house where he dwelt had another court within the porch,
15-22. Completion.
which was of the like work.  Solomon made also an house for 41-50. Enumeration.
Pharaoh's daughter, whom he had taken to wife, like unto this porch. 51. Completion.


9 All these were of costly stones, according to the measures of 7:-14-40. DESCRIPTION.


* -14. Hiram commences the work.
hewed stones, sawed with saws, within and without, even from the
15-22. The position of pillars.
foundation unto the coping, and so on the outside toward the great 23-37. The sea.
Water
court. 38. The lavers.
10 And the foundation was of costly stones, even great stones, 39, 40-. The position of the sea lavers.
-40. Hiram completes the work.
stones of ten cubits, and stones of eight cubits.
15 cast. Heb. fashioned.
11 And above were costly stones, after the measures of hewed two pillars = the two pillars:  i.e. the two notable pillars, for
stones, and cedars. ornament, not for support, and hollow (Jer. 52. 21).
12 And the great court round about was with three rows of hewed eighteen cubits high apiece. So 2 Kings 25. 17 and Jer. 52. 21.
But 2 Chron. 3. is (marg.) says thirty-five cubits long:
stones, and a row of cedar beams, both for the inner court of the i. e. together, the top of "each" being reckoned separately.
house of the LORD, and for the porch of the house. Therefore the height here was 17 ½ + ½
cubit being taken up in the joining on of the capital.
13 And king Solomon sent and fetched Hiram out of Tyre.
 apiece. This is the reckoning here.  In 2 Chron. 3. 15 they are
14 He was a widow's son of the tribe of Naphtali [by marriage], reckoned together.  See margin.
and his father was a man of Tyre, a worker in brass:  and he was 16 chapiters. Old French chapiteau, from Lat. capitu-lum =
capitals, or crowns.
filled with wisdom, and understanding, and skilful to work all
five cubits. So 2 Chron. 3. 15.  But 2 Kings 25. 17 says three
casting in bronze.  And he came to king Solomon, and wrought all cubits, not including the "wreathen" or lattice work, which is
his work. described separately, and must have been two cubits.
 17 nets = frames, or net- or lattice-work.  These are included in
15 For he fashioned the two notable pillars of brass, of eighteen
the five cubits here and in 2 Chron. 3. 15, but not in 2 Kings


cubits high apiece:  and a line of twelve cubits did compass either 25.17.
of them about. 20 belly = swell, or protuberance.


16 And he made two crowns of molten brass, to set upon the tops top, with pomegranates:  and so did he for the other
 crown.
of the pillars:  the height of the one crown was five cubits, and
the height of the other crown was five cubits: 19 And the crowns that were upon the top of the
17 And lattice-work of checker work, and wreaths of chain work, pillars were of lily work in the porch, four cubits.
for the crowns which were upon the top of the pillars; seven for 20 And the crowns upon the two pillars had
the one crown, and seven for the other crown. pomegranates also above, over against the swell
18 And he made the pillars, and two rows round about upon the which was by the network:  and the pomegranates
one network, to cover the crowns that were upon the were two hundred in rows round about upon the other
crowns.
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7. 21. I KINGS. 7. 43.


21 And he set up the pillars for the porch of the temple:  and he set 21 in the porch = for the porch.
 Jachin = He (God) will establish.        Referring to His
up the right pillar, and called the name thereof Jachin:  and he set }
 Boaz = In Him (God) is strength,            People Israel.
up the left pillar, and he called the name thereof Boaz. 23 molten sea = brazen laver. "Sea" put by Fig. Metonymy
22 And upon the top of the pillars was lily work:  so was the work (of Adjunct) for what contained it.
of the pillars finished. a line of thirty cubits. Here the proportion of the diameter
to the circumference (1 : 3) was revealed, while human
23 And he made a brazen laver, ten cubits from the one brim to the
wisdom was still searching it out.
other: it was round all about, and his height was five cubits: and a 26 two thousand. 2 Chron. 4. 5 says three thousand.  But l
line of thirty cubits did compass it round about. Kings 7. 26 speaks of what it did (usually) contain; while 2
Chron. 4. 5 speaks of what it could " receive and hold".  No
24 And under the brim of it round about there were knops
bath in use is filled to its full capacity.
compassing it, ten in a cubit, compassing the sea round about:  the baths. See Ap. 51. III. 3.
knops were cast in two rows, when it was cast. 28 borders = panels, or enclosures.
25 It stood upon twelve oxen, three looking toward the north, and 29 additions = connections.  Probably wreaths.  Occurs only
here and v. 29, 30, 36.
three looking toward the west, and three looking toward the south,
30 wheels:  showing that these lavers were movable;  and
and three looking toward the east:  and the sea was set above upon indicating that when "that which is perfect should come (viz.
them, and all their hinder parts were inward. the washing with spirit, Acts 1. 5), the type (water) was to be
26 And it was an hand breadth thick, and the brim thereof was wheeled away". plates = axletrees.




undersetters = projections, or supports.
wrought like the brim of a cup, with flowers of lilies:  it contained at the side of = opposite.


two thousand baths. 31 borders = panels.  Removed by Ahaz (2 Kings 16. 17).
27 And he made ten bases of brass; four cubits was the length of one Replaced by Hezekiah (2 Chron. 29. 19).  Existed at taking of
Temple (Jer. 52. 17, 20).
base, and four cubits the breadth thereof, and three cubits the height
33 naves = felloes. felloes = spokes. spokes = naves.
of it. 36 proportion :  i. e. on a reduced scale, as the plates
28 And the work of the bases was on this manner:  they had panels, required. 40 lavers = cauldrons (for boiling the peace
and the panels were between the ledges: offerings). Some codices, with three early printed editions,
Sept., and Vulg., read "pans".  Cp. v. 45 and 2 Chron  4. 11.
29 And on the borders that were between the ledges were lions,
made = made for.
oxen, and cherubims: and upon the ledges there was a base above: 41 networks = lattices.
 42 upon = upon the face of.  Fig. Pleonasm. Ap. 6.
and beneath the lions and oxen were certain additions made of thin
work. one casting, one measure, and one size.
 38 Then made he ten lavers of brass:  one laver
30 And every base had four brasen wheels, and axletrees of brass:
26
and the four corners thereof had supports:  under the laver were contained forty baths: and every laver was four
29 cubits: and upon every one of the ten bases one
supports molten, opposite of every addition.
31 And the mouth of it within the crown and above was a cubit: but laver.
the mouth thereof was round after the work of the base, a cubit and 39 And he put five bases on the right side of the
an half:  and also upon the mouth of it were gravings with their house, and five on the left side of the house: and
he set the sea on the right side of the house
panels, foursquare, not round.
30 eastward over against the south.
32 And under the panels were four wheels; and the axletrees of
40 And Hiram made the pans, and the shovels,
the wheels were joined to the base:  and the height of a wheel was a
and the basons.  So Hiram made an end of doing
cubit and a half a cubit.
all the work that he made for king Solomon for
33 And the work of the wheels was like the work of a chariot
the house of the LORD:
wheel:  their axletrees, and their felloes, and their spokes, and their
41 The two pillars, and the two bowls of the
naves, were all molten.
crowns that were on the top of the two pillars; and
34 And there were four supports to the four corners of one base:
the two lattices, to cover the two bowls of the
and the supports were of the very base itself.
crowns which were upon the top of the pillars;
35 And in the top of the base was there a round compass of half a
42 And four hundred pomegranates for the two
cubit high:  and on the top of the base the ledges thereof and the
lattices, even two rows of pomegranates for one
borders thereof were of the same.
network, to cover the two bowls of the crowns that
36 For on the plates of the ledges thereof, and on the borders
were upon the face of the pillars;
thereof, he graved cherubims, lions, and palm trees, according to
43 And the ten bases, and ten lavers on the bases;
 29
the proportion of every one, and additions round about.
37 After this manner he made the ten bases:  all of them had
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7. 44. I KINGS. 8. 11.


44 And one sea, and twelve oxen under the sea; 47 found out = sought out. 48 vessels = furniture.
altar : i.e. the altar of incense.  Cp. 6. 22.
45 And the pots, and the shovels, and the basons:  and all these
49 candlesticks. Cp. 2 Chron. 4. 20. Solomon exceeded the
vessels, which Hiram made to king Solomon for the house of the pattern in number but followed the design in shape.   Size not
LORD, were of bright brass. stated.
46 In the plain of Jordan did the king cast them, in the clay ground pure gold. In Palestine, gold has the least possible alloy, and
is exceedingly malleable.
between Succoth and Zarthan.
50 the most holy place = the holy of holies.
47 And Solomon left all the vessels unweighed, because they were 51 the things which David his father had dedicated = the
exceeding many: neither was the weight of the brass sought out. holy things of David. Heb. kodesh.  See note on Ex. 3. 5
8:1- 66 THE DEDICATION.
48 And Solomon made all the furniture that pertained unto the
1-11.    The Feast.
house of the LORD: the altar of incense of gold, and the table of 12-21.   Blessing.
gold, whereupon the shewbread was, 22.       Station.
 23-53.  PRAYER.
49 And the candlesticks of pure gold, five on the right side, and
54, 55. Station.
five on the left, before the oracle, with the flowers, and the lamps, 56-61.  Blessing.
and the tongs of gold, 62-64.  WORSHIP.
65, 66. The Feast.
50 And the bowls, and the snuffers, and the basons, and the spoons,
 1-11.    THE  FEAST.    (Alternation.)
and the censers of pure gold; and the hinges of gold, both for the
 1-4.       The Ark brought up.
doors of the inner house, the holy of holies, and for the doors of the 5.         "Could not be numbered."  (Multitude.)
house, to wit, of the temple. 6-9.       The Ark brought in.
10, 11. "Could not stand."  (Cloud.)
51 So was ended all the work that king Solomon made for the
1 the elders. Some codices, with Sept., Syr., and Vulg., read
house of the LORD.  And Solomon brought in the holy things of
"all the elders".
David; even the silver, and the gold, and the vessels, did he put and. Some codices, with three early printed editions, Aram.,
among the treasures of the house of the LORD. and Sept., omit "and".
fathers = fathers' houses = families. children = sons.


8 Then Solomon assembled all the elders of Israel, and all the out of the city of David: i. e. up out of Zion (the former
Jebus, 2 Sam. 5. 6-9) to Moriah, where the Temple had been
heads of the tribes, the chief of the families of the sons of Israel,
built (l Chron. 21. 28—22. 1).  Cp. 2 Sam. 6.
unto king Solomon in Jerusalem, that they might bring up the ark of 2 Ethanim. Same as Tisri.


the covenant of the LORD out of the city of David, which is Zion. the seventh month. Cp. Lev. 23. 24.  See note on 6. 38.
2 And all the men of Israel assembled themselves unto king 3 took up. As commanded in Num. 4. 5, 15, 19.
 4 the tabernacle = the tent. Heb. 'ohel.  See Ap. 40. Brought
Solomon at the feast in the month Ethanim, which is the seventh
from Gibeon (2 Chron. 1. 3, 4).  Probably put among the
month. treasures of 7. 51. priests : the ministers of sacrifice.
 Levites : the ministers of praise.
3 And all the elders of Israel came, and the priests took up the ark.
4 And they brought up the ark of the LORD, and the tent of the 6 oracle = the most holy place.    Cp. 2 Sam. 16. 23.
the most holy place = the holy of holies.
congregation, and all the holy vessels that were in the tent, even 8 without = outside : i.e. outside the holy place.


those did the priests and the Levites bring up. unto this day: i.e.  l Kings written while Temple was still
5 And king Solomon, and all the congregation of Israel, that were standing;  therefore before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar,
and before the Captivity. Cp. 2 Chron. 5. 9, and see 9. 21; 12.
assembled unto him, were with him before the ark, sacrificing
19.  2 Kings 8. 22; 10. 27.
sheep and oxen, that could not be told nor numbered for multitude. 9 save, &c. Heb. 9. 4 speaks of the Ark as it was in the
6 And the priests brought in the ark of the covenant of the LORD Tabernacle, not as in the Temple.  Cp. Heb. 9. 2, 3, 4.
unto his place, into the most holy place of the house, to the holy of when…Israel. The Sept. reads "the Tables which Moses
placed [there] in Horeb, which [Tables] the LORD covenanted
holies, even under the wings of the cherubims.
with the sons of Israel".
7 For the cherubims spread forth their two wings over the place
of the ark, and the cherubims covered the ark and the staves made a covenant with the sons of Israel, when they
thereof above. came out of the land of Egypt.
8 And they drew out the staves, that the ends of the staves were 10 And it came to pass, when the priests were
seen out in the holy place before the most holy place, and they come out of the holy place, that the cloud filled the
 house of the LORD,
were not seen outside the holy place:  and there they are unto
this day. 11 So that the priests could not stand to minister
 because of the cloud: for the glory of the LORD
9 There was nothing in the ark save the two tables of stone,
 had filled the house of the LORD.
which Moses put there at Horeb, when the LORD
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7. 12. I KINGS. 8. 29.


 8. 12- 21 BLESSING.
12 Then spake Solomon, The LORD said that He would dwell in
thick darkness.
12. Words of and to Jehovah.
13 I have surely built Thee an house to dwell in, a settled place for 13. The house.
Thee to abide in for ever. 14- 16. Words of and to Jehovah.
 17. The house.
14 And the king turned his face about, and blessed all the assembly
18 ,19. Words of and to Jehovah.
of Israel: (and all the assembly of Israel stood;) 20, 21. The house.


15 And he said, Blessed be the LORD God of Israel, Which spake 12 dwell. Fig. Anthropopatheia. Ap. 6.
e
with His mouth unto David my father, and hath with His hand 13 house to dwell in. Heb. beth z bul = Assyrian bit-zabali =
 high or lofty house.  Cp. Zebulun (Gen. 30. 20).
fulfilled it, saying,
14 congregation = assembly,
16 Since the day that I brought forth My People Israel out of Egypt, 15 God. Heb. Elohim.  Ap. 4. saying. Cp. 2 Sam. 7. 6.
I chose no city out of all the tribes of Israel to build an house, that 16 therein = there, with Sept. and 2 Chron. 6. 5.  The Sept. adds
after this word "and I have chosen Jerusalem that My Name
My name might be there; but I chose David to be over My People might be there".  This is preserved in 2 Chron. 6. 6.  The scribe's
Israel. eye, in copying, went back to the next word, "I have chosen
17 And it was in the heart of David my father to build an house for David", and went on from there, omitting the sentence given
above.
the name of the LORD God of Israel. 18 said. Cp. 2 Sam. 7. 12.
 21 the covenant. Put by Fig. Metonymy (of Subject), Ap. 6, for
18 And the LORD said unto David my father, Whereas it was in
thine heart to build an house unto My name, thou didst well that it the two tables of stone on which it was written.
22 stood = took his position:  position, not posture.  See note on
was in thine heart. v. 54.
19 Nevertheless thou shalt not build the house; but thy son that shall spread forth. He did this kneeling. See v. 54 and 2 Chron. 6. 13.
23 mercy = lovingkindness, or grace.
come forth out of thy loins, he shall build the house unto My name.
23-53 ...... THE  PRAYER.
20 And the LORD hath performed His word that He spake, and I am
risen up in the room of David my father, and sit on the throne of 23-30.        General.  Jehovah and himself.
Israel, as the LORD promised, and have built an house for the name 31-53.        Special. The people.
of the LORD God of Israel. 23-30 ............    GENERAL.
21 And I have set there a place for the ark, wherein is [the two tables 23, 24.        Jehovah's faithfulness.
25, 26.        Solomon's plea.
of stone on which is written] the covenant of the LORD, which He
27.              Jehovah's immensity.
made with our fathers, when He brought them out of the land of 28-30.        Solomon's plea.


Egypt. 25 so that = provided that, as = according as.
22 And Solomon took his position before the altar of the LORD in 26 God = Elohim.  Ap. 4.1.  Some codices, with Sept., Syr.,
the presence of all the assembly of Israel, and [kneeling] spread and Vulg., read "Jehovah Elohim".   Ap. 4. I, II.
word. Heb. dabar.  Put by Fig. Metonymy (of Subject), for
forth his hands toward heaven:
the promises made by it.  See v. 56.
23 And he said, LORD God of Israel, there is no God like Thee, in 27 will…? Fig. Erotesis. Ap. 6.  Cp. 2 Chron. 6. 18.   Isa.
heaven above, or on earth beneath, Who keepest covenant and 66. l.  Acts 7. 48, 49.
mercy with Thy servants that walk before Thee with all their heart: indeed = in truth.
behold. Fig. Asterismos. Ap. 6.
24 Who hast kept with Thy servant David my father that Thou
heaven, &c. Fig. Polyptoton (Ap. 6), for emphasis.
promisedst him: Thou spakest also with Thy mouth, and hast how much…? Fig. Erotesis. Ap. 6.
fulfilled it with Thine hand, as it is this day. 28 prayer. Includes every thought of the heart which is
Godward.
25 Therefore now, LORD God of Israel, keep with Thy servant
supplication = entreaty (for favour).
David my father that Thou promisedst him, saying, There shall not cry = the vehement utterance of either.
fail thee a man in My sight to sit on the throne of Israel; provided 29 toward. So written, but some codices read "upon".
that Thy sons take heed to their way, that they walk before Me make toward. Hence Daniel's act (Dan. 6. 10).
according as thou hast walked before Me.
26 And now, O God of Israel, let Thy word, I pray Thee, be


Verified, which Thou spakest unto Thy servant David my father. to the prayer, which Thy servant prayeth before
* Thee to day:
27 But will God indeed dwell on the earth? behold, the heaven
*
and heaven of heavens cannot contain Thee; how much less this 29 That Thine eyes may be open toward this house


house that I have builded? night and day, even toward the place of which
28 Yet have Thou respect unto the prayer of Thy servant, and to Thou hast said, My name shall be there:  that Thou
his entreaty, O LORD my God, to hearken unto the cry and mayest hearken unto the prayer which Thy servant


 shall make toward this place.
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8. 30. I KINGS. 8. 46.


30 And hearken Thou to the supplication of Thy servant, and of Thy 31-53. SPECIAL.    THE PEOPLE.


People Israel, when they shall pray toward this place:  and hear 31. Subject.
32. “Hear Thou”. Individual.
*
Thou in heaven Thy dwelling place:  and when Thou hearest, 33. Subject.
forgive. 34. “Hear Thou”.


 35. Subject.
31 Whosoever trespass against his neighbour, and an oath be laid National.
36. “Hear Thou”.
upon him to cause him to swear, … before Thine altar in this house: 37, 38. Subject.


32 Then hear Thou in heaven, and do, and judge Thy servants, 39, 40. “Hear Thou”.


condemning the wicked, to bring his way upon his head; and 41, 42. Subject.
43. “Hear Thou”. Individual.
justifying the righteous, to give him according to his righteousness.
44. Subject.
 45. “Hear Thou”.
33 When Thy People Israel be smitten down before the enemy, National.
46-48. Subject.
because they have sinned against Thee, and shall turn again to Thee,
49-53. “Hear Thou”.
and confess Thy name, and pray, and make supplication unto Thee
30 dwelling place.  Fig. Anthropopatheia. Ap. 6.
in this house: 31 If = When, or Whosoever shall.
34 Then hear thou in heaven, and forgive the sin of Thy People trespass. See Ap. 44. i. This shows an acquaintance with the
 Pentateuch.  See v. 33, and Ap. 47.
Israel, and bring them again unto the land which Thou gavest unto
and the oath come. Omitted by Aram., Sept., Syr., and Vulg.
their fathers. versions.
 33 When. Note how these petitions are based on the
35 When heaven is shut up, and there is no rain, because they have
Pentateuch. Cp. Lev. 26.17.  Deut. 28. 25.
sinned against Thee; if they pray toward this place, and confess Thy
34 bring them again. See Deut. 30. 1-8.  Neh. 1. 8, 9.
name, and turn from their sin, when Thou afflictest them: 35 When heaven is shut up. Cp. Lev. 26.19.  Deut. 11. 17.
36 Then hear Thou in heaven, and forgive the sin of Thy servants, Cp. ch. 17.1.
36 that Thou teach = because Thou wilt teach.
and of Thy People Israel, because Thou wilt teach them the good 37 pestilence = death.  Cp. Lev. 26. 26.
way wherein they should walk, and give rain upon Thy land, which blasting = blight. cities. Heb. gates.  Put by Fig. Metonymy
Thou hast given to Thy People for an inheritance. (of Adjunct) for cities. 38 man. Heb. 'adam. Ap. 14. I.
know = perceive in his own heart. Lat. conscio,
37 If there be in the land famine, if there be death, blight, mildew, every man.  Heb. 'ish. Ap. 14. II.
locust, or if there be caterpiller; if their enemy besiege them in the plague = punishment.  Put by Fig. Metonymy (of Cause), Ap. 6,
land of their cities; whatsoever plague, whatsoever sickness there be; for the sin which produces it.
28 39 his = all his, as in 2 Chron. 6. 30.
38 What prayer and entreaty for favour soever be made by any for Thou, &c. Fig. Epitrechon. Ap. 6.
man, or by all Thy People Israel, which shall perceive in his own 41 stranger = foreigner, or alien. Already contemplated in
Num. 15. 14.   Deut. 10. 19.
heart every man the sin of his own heart, and spread forth his hands
42 they shall hear. Cp. 10.1, 6, 7.
toward this house: 44 enemy. Some codices, with Aram., Sept., Syr., and Vulg.,
* read "enemies".
39 Then hear Thou in heaven Thy dwelling place, and forgive, and
45 cause. Heb. judgment: i. e. execute judgment for them.
do, and give to every man according to all his ways, whose heart
46 there is no man that sinneth not. Fig. Parosmia. Ap. 6.
Thou knowest; (for Thou, even Thou only, knowest the hearts of all Cp. Prov. 20. 9.  Ecc. 7. 20.  Jas. 3. 2.
the sons of men;)
40 That they may fear Thee all the days that they live in the
land which Thou gavest unto our fathers. whithersoever Thou shalt send them, and shall
41 Moreover concerning a foreigner, or alien, that is not of Thy pray unto the LORD toward the city which Thou
People Israel, but cometh out of a far country for Thy name's hast chosen, and toward the house that I have built
sake; for Thy name:


42 (For they shall hear of Thy great name, and of Thy strong 45 Then hear Thou in heaven their prayer and
hand, and of Thy stretched out arm;) when he shall come and their supplication, and execute judgment for
pray toward this house; them.
* *
43 Hear Thou in heaven thy dwelling place, and do according to 46 If they sin against Thee, (for there is no man
all that the stranger calleth to Thee for:  that all people of the that sinneth not,) and Thou be angry with them,
earth may know Thy name, to fear Thee, as do Thy People Israel; and deliver them to the enemy, so that they carry
and that they may know that this house, which I have builded, is them away captives unto the land of the enemy,
called by Thy name. far or near;
44 If Thy People go out to battle against their enemies,
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8. 47. I KINGS. 8. 63.


 47 if, &c. Deuteronomy supplied the Lord with answers in
47 Yet if they shall call themselves to their right mind in the land
His temptation;  and supplied Solomon with petitions for his
whither they were carried captives, and repent, and make
prayer.  Cp. 30. 1-3,  4, 20;  9. 26, 29 (cp. vv. 51, 52 below); 7.
supplication unto Thee in the land of them that carried them 9 (cp. v. 23 above);  and 10. 14 (cp. v. 27 above), &c.
 bethink themselves = call themselves to their right mind.
captives, saying, We have sinned, and have done perversely, we
have committed wickedness; (The verb is in the Hiphil.)
saying, We have sinned. Cp. Neh. 1. 6, 7.  Dan. 9. 8.
48 And so return unto Thee with all their heart, and with all their
48 toward their land. Cp. Dan. 6. 10; 9. 5-19.  Ezra 9. 5-15;
soul, in the land of their enemies, which led them away captive, and 10.1.  Neh. 9. 16-35.  Ps. 106. 6.
 the city. Some codices, with two early printed editions, and
pray unto Thee toward their land, which Thou gavest unto their
Vulg., read "and the city".
fathers, and the city which Thou hast chosen, and the house which
 I have built. Heb. text written "Thou hast built", but some
I have built for Thy name: codices, with three early printed editions, Aram., Sept., and
49 Then hear Thou their prayer and their supplication in heaven Vulg., read "I have built", as in A.V.
* 45 50 forgive Thy People. Cp. Lev. 26. 40, 42.
Thy dwelling place, and maintain their cause,
 give them. Cp. Ezra 1. 1,3.
50 And forgive Thy People that have sinned against Thee and all
51 furnace = furnace for the smelting of iron; not made of
their transgressions wherein they have transgressed against Thee, iron.  Cp. Gen. 15. 17.
 53 didst separate. Cp. Lev. 20. 24, 26.
and give them compassion before them who carried them captive,
that they may have compassion on them: people = peoples.
54 praying…prayer = making this solemn prayer,  fig.
51 For they be Thy People, and Thine inheritance, which Thou Polyptoton.  Ap. 6.
broughtest forth out of Egypt, from the midst of the furnace for the kneeling. See note on v. 22, and cp. 19. 18.  Isa. 45.23. Ezra
smelting of iron: 9. 5.  2 Chron. 6. 13. Dan. 6. 10.  Ps. 95. 6. Standing was the
earlier practice (1 Sam. 1. 26).
52 That Thine eyes may be open unto the supplication of Thy
servant, and unto the supplication of Thy People Israel, to hearken 8. 56-61 THE  BLESSING.


unto them in all that they call for unto Thee.
 56-    The faithfulness of Jehovah. Celebrated.
53 For Thou didst separate them from among all the peoples of -56.    Retrospective.      Praise.
the earth, to be Thine inheritance, according as Thou spakest by 57-60.   Prospective.    Prayer.
61   The faithfulness of His People. Exhortation.
the hand of Moses Thy servant, when Thou broughtest our fathers
56 given rest. Cp. Ex. 33.14.
out of Egypt, O Lord GOD.
not failed. Not fallen [to the ground].  Heb. naphal, to fall.
54 And it was so, that when Solomon had made an end of making Solomon knows Josh. 23. 14.  Cp. Josh. 21. 45, Moses His
this solemn prayer and supplication unto the LORD, he arose from servant. See note on Ex. 14. 31.
 57 us. Note that Solomon includes himself.
before the altar of the LORD, from kneeling on his knees with his
let Him not leave us, &c. See note on Gen. 28. 15.
hands spread up to heaven.
58 incline our hearts. Cp. Lev. 26. 3-13.  Deut. 28. 1-14.
55 And he stood, and blessed all the assembly of Israel with a loud Some codices, with three early printed editions, Sept., and
voice, saying, Vulg., read "heart".
 59 at all times. Heb. the matter of a day in its day:  i.e. day
56 Blessed be the LORD, That hath given rest unto His People
by day.
Israel, according to all that He promised:  there hath not fallen to 60 may know. Cp. Deut. 4. 39. is = he [is].
the ground one word of all His good promise, which He promised 61 perfect with = loyal:  i.e. not divided between Jehovah
 and other gods; hence wholly devoted to.  Not heeded by
by the hand of Moses His servant.
 Solomon himself.  Cp. 9. 6; 11. 4.
57 The LORD our God be with us, according as He was with our
62 offered sacrifice. Heb. sacrificed a sacrifice. Fig.


fathers: let Him not leave us, nor forsake us: Polyptoton (Ap. 6) = offered a great or abundant sacrifice.
 See  Ap. 43. I. iv.  Jehovah accepted them by fire from
58 That He may incline our hearts unto Him, to walk in all His
ways, and to keep His commandments, and His statutes, and heaven, as recorded in 2 Chron. 7. 1.    See note on Gen. 4. 4.
His judgments, which He commanded our fathers.


59 And let these my words, wherewith I have made supplication 62 And the king, and all Israel with him, offered
before the LORD, be nigh unto the LORD our God day and sacrifice before the LORD.
night, that He maintain the cause of his servant, and the cause of 63 And Solomon offered a sacrifice of peace
His People Israel day by day, as the matter shall require: offerings, which he offered unto the LORD, two and
 twenty thousand oxen, and an hundred and twenty
60 That all the peoples of the earth may know that the LORD
thousand sheep.  So the king and all the sons of Israel
He is God, and that there is none else.
dedicated the house of the LORD.
61 Let your heart therefore be loyal with the LORD our God, to
walk in His statutes, and to keep His commandments, as at this
day.
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8. 64. I KINGS. 9. 15.


64 The same day did the king hallow the middle of the court that 64 offered = prepared.  Ap. 43. I. iii.
65 a feast = the feast:  viz. the Feast of Tabernacles. See
was before the house of the LORD:  for there he prepared burnt
note on v. 2.
offerings, and meat offerings, and the fat of the peace offerings: seven days and seven days. Fig. Epizeuxis. Ap. 6. The first
because the brasen altar that was before the LORD was too little to seven the Feast of Dedication;  the second the Feast of
receive the burnt offerings, and meat offerings, and the fat of the Tabernacles.
66 for David: i. e. in the person of Solomon his son. Fig.
peace offerings.
Synecdoche (of Part).  Cp. 10. 9 and 2 Chron. 7:10.
65 And at that time Solomon held the feast [of Tabernacles], and all
 9. 1-9. SECOND APPEARANCE OF JEHOVAH.
Israel with him, a great assembly, from the entering in of Hamath
* 1, 2. Appearance.
unto the river of Egypt, before the LORD our God, seven days and
3. Acceptance.
seven days, even fourteen days. 4-9. Admonition.
66 On the eighth day he sent the People away:  and they blessed the
1 the Lord. Heb. Jehovah.  Ap. 4. II.
king, and went unto their tents joyful and glad of heart for all the
2 as He had appeared. See 3:5.


goodness that the LORD had done for David His servant, and for 3 Mine eyes…Mine heart. Fig. Anthropopatheia.
Israel His people.
4-9. ADMONITION.
9 And it came to pass, when Solomon had finished the building of
4 and. Sept., Syr., and Vulg, read this "and" in the text.
the house of the LORD, and the king's house, and all Solomon's 5 as = according as.
desire which he was pleased to do, 6 children = sons.
 7 people = peoples.
2 That the LORD appeared to Solomon the second time, as he had
8 And at this house, &c. Render thus : "And this house
appeared [in a dream] unto him at Gibeon.
will become conspicuous;  every passer by will be
3 And the LORD said unto him, I have heard thy prayer and thy astonished, and hiss;  and they will say", &c.
supplication, that thou hast made before Me: I have hallowed this 9 God. Heb. Elohim. evil. Heb. ra'a'. Ap. 44. viii.
10 twenty years. Cp. 7. 1.
house, which thou hast built, to put My name there for ever; and
* 11 Now Hiram. Fig. Parenthesis. fir, or cypress.
Mine eyes and Mine heart shall be there perpetually. 13 What cities…? Fig. Erotesis. Ap. 6.
4 And if thou wilt walk before Me, as David thy father walked, in Cabul. The point of the sarcasm is not apparent to us on
integrity of heart, and in uprightness, to do according to all that I account of our not knowing the meaning of the word.  It has
been variously suggested as meaning "worthless", "not to my
have commanded thee, and wilt keep My statutes and My
taste" (Josephus).  Galilee always despised.  Sept. says
judgments: "frontier"; others, "received as a pledge"; others, "good for
5 Then I will establish the throne of thy kingdom upon Israel for nothing".
ever, according as I promised to David thy father, saying, There 14 sent:  referring to v. 11.  Perhaps this was an advance for
which the cities of v. 11 were the security.
shall not fail thee a man upon the throne of Israel.
6 But if ye shall at all turn from following Me, ye or your sons, and 15-24. THE LEVY.


will not keep My commandments and My statutes which I have set 15 reason = account, or schedule.
before you, but go and serve other gods, and worship them: Levy : i.e. tribute of men.  Same word as 5:13-18;  not the
same word as v. 21.
7 Then will I cut off Israel out of the land which I have given them;
and this house, which I have hallowed for My name, will I cast out
of My sight; and Israel shall be a proverb and a byword among all
peoples:
8 And this house will become conspicuous; every passer by will
be astonished, and hiss; and they will say, Why hath the LORD
done thus unto this land, and to this house? land of Galilee.
9 And they shall answer, Because they forsook the LORD their 12 And Hiram came out from Tyre to see the
God, Who brought forth their fathers out of the land of Egypt, and cities which Solomon had given him; and they
have taken hold upon other gods, and have worshipped them, and pleased him not.
*
served them:  therefore hath the LORD brought upon them all this 13 And he said, What cities are these which


evil. thou hast given me, my brother? And he called


10 And it came to pass at the end of twenty years, when Solomon them the land of Cabul unto this day.
had built the two houses, the house of the LORD, and the king's 14 And Hiram sent to the king sixscore talents
house, of gold.
*
11 ( Now Hiram the king of Tyre had furnished Solomon with 15 And this is the account of the levy which
cedar trees and cypress trees, and with gold, according to all his
desire,) that then king Solomon gave Hiram twenty cities in the
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9. 15. I KINGS. 10. 5.


king Solomon raised; for to build the house of the LORD, and his Millo = the Millo.  Part of Jebusite city, or the filling up
between Jebus and Moriah.  Hezekiah strengthened it.
own house, and the Millo, and the wall of Jerusalem, and Hazor,
Shechem had a "Millo" (Judg. 9. 6).  Cp. v. 24; 11.27.  2 Sam.
and Megiddo, and Gezer. 5. 9.  l Chron. 11.8.   2 Chron. 32. 54.
15
16 For Pharaoh king of Egypt had gone up, and taken Gezer, and the wall. Begun by David (2 Sam. 5. 9.  l Chron. 11. 8).
burnt it with fire, and slain the Canaanites that dwelt in the city, and Solomon closed the breaches (11. 27).
Hazor, an old Canaanitish town (Josh. 11. l).
given it for a dowry unto his daughter, Solomon's wife.
Megiddo, the same (Josh. 12. 21.  Judg. 1. 27; 5. 19, and
17 And Solomon rebuilt Gezer, and Beth-horon the nether, 1 Kings 4. 12).
 Gezer. Gezer was formerly under the suzerainty of Egypt.
18 And Baalath, and Tadmor in the wilderness, in the land,
Correspondence of the time of Amen-hotep III and IV, about
19 And all the cities of store that Solomon had, and cities for his
1450 B. C, has been found at Tel-el-Amarnah explorations,
chariots, and cities for his horsemen, and that which Solomon which mentions Yapakhi as "king" of Gezer.  Letters from
desired to build in Jerusalem, and in Lebanon, and in all the land of Abdkhiba, king of Jerusalem, complain of the Gezerites.  First
his dominion. mentioned in Josh. 10. 33.  Conquest only partial (Josh. 16.
10.  Judg. 1. 29).  Allotted to Levites (Josh. 21. 21).  In
20 And all the people that were left of the Amorites, Hittites,
excavation by Palestine Exploration Fund a contract was
Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, which were not of the sons of found, dated 649 B. C. (in Assyrian). Gezer then still under an
Israel, Egyptian Governor.  Another contract, dated 647 B. C, was
21 Their sons that were left after them in the land, whom the sons found, showing an Assyrian occupation in the time of
Manasseh.  This may explain the "captains" of 2 Chron.
of Israel also were not able utterly to destroy, upon those did 38.11.


Solomon levy a tribute of bondservice unto this day. 16 present = dowry.
 17 built = rebuilt and fortified.
22 But of the sons of Israel did Solomon make no bondmen:  but
18 Tadmor. Called, later, Palmyra (from its palms).
they were men of war, and his servants, and his princes, and his
21 bondservice. See note on v. 22.
captains, and rulers of his chariots, and his horsemen. 22 make no bondmen. According to Lev. 25. 39. The levy,
23 These were the chief of the officers that were over Solomon's of 5.13; 11. 28, was a levy for free service.  This was for
work, five hundred and fifty, which bare rule over the People that bondservice (v. 21).
and. Note the Fig. Polysyndeton (Ap. 6) in this verse.
wrought in the work.
35 three times in a year. Cp. Ex. 23. 14-17.  Deut. 16. 16.  2
24 But Pharaoh's daughter came up out of the city of David unto her Chron. 8. 13.
house which Solomon had built for her:  then did he build Millo. offer = offer up.  See Ap. 43. I. vi.


25 And three times in a year did Solomon offer up burnt offerings 9:26—10:29. RICHES AND WISDOM.


and peace offerings upon the altar which he built unto the LORD,
and he burnt incense upon the altar that was before the LORD.  So 9:26-28 Riches.   Navy.
10:1-10. Wisdom.   Queen of Sheba.
he finished the house.
10:11, 12. Riches.   Navy.


26 And king Solomon made a navy of ships in Ezion-geber, which 10:13. Wisdom.  Queen of Sheba.
is beside Eloth, on the shore of the Red sea, in the land of Edom. 10:14-29. Riches.   Possessions.


27 And Hiram sent in the navy his servants, shipmen that had 26 Ezion-geber. Cp. Num. 33. 35.  Deut. 2. 8.  Position lost
knowledge of the sea, with the servants of Solomon. when Edom revolted (2 Kings 8. 20). Restored by Uzziah
28 And they came to Ophir, and fetched from thence gold, four (2 Kings 14. 22).  Finally lost by Ahaz (2 Kings 16. 6).
hundred and twenty talents, and brought it to king Solomon. 10. 1 queen of Sheba. Cp. 2 Chron. 9.1.
Sheba, a grandson of Cush, settled in Ethiopia (Gen. 10. 7):
 i.e. Nubia and North Abyssinia, where female sovereigns
10 And when the queen of Sheba kept hearing of the report of
were not unusual.  Cp. Acts 8. 27.
Solomon concerning the name of the LORD, she came to prove him heard = kept hearing.  By the commercial intercourse of 9.
with difficult questions. 26-28.  Cp. 2 Chron. 8. 17;  9. l.  Note her seven steps :  heard
 (v. 1); came (v. 2); communed (v. 2); saw (v. 4);  said (v. 6);
2 And she came to Jerusalem with a very great train, with camels
gave (v. 10); returned (v. 13).
that bare spices, and very much gold, and precious stones: and when
fame = report.
she was come to King Solomon, she communed with him of all that hard = abstruse, or difficult.
was in her heart. 2 she came. Note the use of this made by the Lord Jesus in
3 And Solomon told her all her questions:  there was not any thing Matt. 12. 42.  Luke 11. 31.
Solomon. Some codices, with four early printed editions,
hid from the king, which he told her not.
Syr., and Vulg., read "King Solomon".
4 And when the queen of Sheba had seen all Solomon's wisdom, 5 sitting = seated assembly. attendance = standing.
and the house that he had built,
5 And the meat of his table, and the seated assembly of his servants,
and the standing of his ministers, and their apparel, and his
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10. 5. I KINGS. 10. 27.


 ascent. The covered stairway connecting Mount Zion
cupbearers, and his ascent by which he went up unto the house of
 (Jebus) with Mount Moriah.  Cp. 2 Kings 16. 18. Ascent is
the LORD; there was no more spirit in her.
the word for burnt or "ascending offering", by the merits of
6 And she said to the king, It was a true report that I heard in mine which we ascend now.
own land of thy words and of thy wisdom. spirit. Heb. ruach. Ap. 9.
7 Howbeit I believed not the words, until I came, and mine eyes had 6 acts = words.
* 7 behold. Fig. Asterismos. Ap. 6.
seen it:  and, behold, the half was not told me:  thy wisdom and
9 delighted. See note on Num. 14. 8.  2 Sam. 15. 26.
prosperity exceedeth the fame which I heard. justice = righteousness.
8 Happy are thy men, happy are these thy servants, which stand 11 navy also of Hiram. Joined with Solomon (v. 22; 9. 27,
28). Ophir. See note on 2 Chron. 8.18.
continually before thee, and that hear thy wisdom.
 13 of his royal bounty. Heb. according to the hand of king
9 Blessed be the LORD thy God, Which delighted in thee, to set Solomon.
thee on the throne of Israel:  because the LORD loved Israel for
10:14-29. RICHES.   POSSESSIONS.
ever, therefore made He thee king, to do judgment and
righteousness. 14 came. Probably in tariffs.
six hundred threescore and six = 666.  Symbolical of the
10 And she gave the king an hundred and twenty talents of gold, and
height or essence of man's desire, but all vanity (Ap. 10).
of spices very great store, and precious stones:  there came no more Cp. Ecc 2. 8, 11.   l Tim. 6. 10.
such abundance of spices as these which the queen of Sheba gave to 17 shields. Taken away by Shishak in the reign of
king Solomon. Rehoboam (14. 26).
 18 the best = pure.
11 And the navy also of Hiram, that brought gold from Ophir,
19 top = canopy. stays = supports.  Lit. hands.
brought in from Ophir great plenty of almug trees, and precious 22 navy of Tharshish = Tharshish ships, a name for large
stones. ocean-going ships (like English "East-Indiamen").  When
mentioned as a place it is identified by Oppert with Tartessis
12 And the king made of the almug trees pillars for the house of the
= the Andalusia of to-day, noted for silver (not gold), iron,
LORD, and for the king's house, harps also and psalteries for tin, and lead (Jer. 10. 9.  Ezek. 27.12).  They sailed from
singers: there came no such almug trees, nor were seen unto this day. Tyre to the West Mediterranean, and from Ezion-geber to
13 And king Solomon gave unto the queen of Sheba all her desire, Ophir (Arabia, India, and East Africa), 9. 26-28 and 10. 11.
 ivory = elephants' tusks.
whatsoever she asked, beside that which Solomon gave her of his
apes, and peacocks. The Heb. for these are Indian words
royal bounty.  So she turned and went to her own country, she and (Tamil).
her servants. 25 brought = kept bringing.
 27 sycomore. Not English, but Eastern ; a kind of fig, or
14 Now the weight of gold that came to Solomon in one year was
 mulberry.
six hundred threescore and six [666] talents of gold.
15 Beside that he had of the merchantmen, and of the traffick of the
spice merchants, and of all the kings of Arabia, and of the
governors of the country. Tharshish, bringing gold, and silver, elephants’


16 And king Solomon made two hundred targets of beaten tusks, and apes, and peacocks.
gold:  six hundred shekels of gold went to one target. 23 So king Solomon exceeded all the kings of the
 earth for riches and for wisdom.
17 And he made three hundred shields of beaten gold; three
pound of gold went to one shield:  and the king put them in the 24 And all the earth sought to Solomon, to hear
house of the forest of Lebanon. his wisdom, which God had put in his heart.
18 Moreover the king made a great throne of ivory, and overlaid it 25 And they kept bringing every man his present,
with pure gold. vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and
19 The throne had six steps, and the canopy of the throne was garments, and armour, and spices, horses, and
round behind: and there were supports on either side on the place mules, a rate year by year.
of the seat, and two lions stood beside the stays. 26 And Solomon gathered together chariots and
20 And twelve lions stood there on the one side and on the other horsemen:  and he had a thousand and four
upon the six steps:  there was not the like made in any kingdom. hundred chariots, and twelve thousand horsemen,
21 And all king Solomon's drinking vessels were of gold, and all whom he bestowed in the cities for chariots, and
the vessels of the house of the forest of Lebanon were of pure with the king at Jerusalem.
gold; none were of silver:  it was nothing accounted of in the days 27 And the king made silver to be in Jerusalem as
of Solomon. stones, and cedars made he to be as the


22 For the king had at sea a navy of Tharshish with the navy of sycomore trees that are in the vale, for
Hiram:  once in three years came the navy of abundance.
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10. 28. I KINGS. 11. 14.


 28 horses. Cp. Isa. 31. 1; 36. 9.  Also Ezek. 17. 15. linen yarn.
28 And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and
 Probably = by strings, or droves (i. e. the horses).
linen yarn: the king's merchants received the linen yarn at a
29 kings of the Hittites. Cp. l Sam. 26:6.  2 Kings 7:6.  These
price. passages alleged to be unhistoric!  but they are confirmed by the
29 And a chariot came up and went out of Egypt for six discoveries made in 1874 throughout Asia Minor and North Syria,
hundred shekels of silver, and an horse for an hundred and which identify them with the "sons of Heth" (Gen. 23. 3, 5, 7;  25. 10;
 27. 46;  49. 32), the Khatta of the Accadian and the Kheta of the
fifty:  and so for all the kings of the Hittites, and for the
Egyptian records. They contended on equal terms with Assyria and
kings of Syria, did they bring them out by their means. Egypt.  Crushed by Sargon II, 717 B. c. Chief centers, Carchemish on
the Euphrates and Kadesh on the Upper Orontes.
11 But king Solomon loved many foreign women, by their means. Heb. by their hand.  Hand put by Fig. Metonymy (of
together with the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Cause), Ap. 6, for what is done by it:—by means of Solomon's
merchants.
Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, and Hittites;
2 Of the nations concerning which the LORD said unto the 11:1-40. MARRIAGES.


sons of Israel, Ye shall not go in to them, neither shall they 1-8. Sins.   Committed.
come in unto you:  for surely they will turn away your heart 9-. Jehovah’s anger.
-9, 10. Sins.   Charged.
after their gods:  Solomon clave unto these in love.
11-40. Jehovah’s punishment.
3 And he had seven hundred wives, princesses, and three
1 strange = foreign.  Note the frequent reference to these in the Book
hundred concubines:  and his wives turned away his heart. of Proverbs. Note the three steps in Solomon's fall: wealth, weapons,
4 For it came to pass, when Solomon was old, that his wives and women. Cp. Deut. 17. 16-17, where note the items in which
 Solomon failed.
turned away his heart after other gods:  and his heart was not
 3 children = sons.
perfect with the LORD his God, as was the heart of David
4 not perfect. See note on 8. 61.
his father. as = according to.  David was faultless as to idolatry.
 5 Ashtoreth. Cp. Judg. 2:13.  1 Sam. 7:3; 12:10; 31:10.
5 For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the
 Milcom. Same as Malcham, the Aramaic pronunciation of Molech
Zidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the
(v. 7).  See Zeph. 1. 5.  Translated "their king" (Jer. 49. l.  Amos 1.
Ammonites. 15).
6 And Solomon did the evil in the sight of the LORD, and abomination. The word used for an idol by Fig. Metonymy (of
4 Effect), because of Jehovah's hatred which it produced.  Cp. 2 Kings
went not fully after the LORD, as did David his father.
 23. 13.  Dan. 9. 27.
7 Then did Solomon build an high place for Chemosh, the
5 6 evil = the evil.  Heb. ra'a'.  Ap. 44. viii.
abomination of Moab, in [the] Mount of Olives that is before 7 Chemosh. Cp. Num. 21. 29.  Jer. 48. 7,13, 46. 2 Kings 23. 13.
 5 the hill, &c. = Mount of Olives !  Hence called "the Mount of
Jerusalem, and for Molech, the abomination of the sons of
Ammon. Corruption" (2 Kings 23. 13).
Molech. Generally has the article and denotes the king-idol (Lev. 18.
8 And likewise did he for all his foreign wives, which burnt 21; 20. 2, 3, 4, 5. 1 Kings 11. 7.  2 Kings 23. 10.  Jer. 32. 35).  Isa. 30.
incense and sacrificed unto their gods. 33 and 57. 9 may be Molech, the idol, and not Melek, "king".
 9 angry. Fig. Prosopopoeia. Ap. 6. Heb. 'anaph.  Used only of
9 And the LORD was angry with Solomon, because his heart
Divine anger.  Occurs fourteen times:  six in the Hithpael = to force
was turned from the LORD God of Israel, Which had
 one's self to be angry (as with one loved).  See the six:  Deut. 1. 37;
appeared unto him twice, 4. 21;  9.8,20.
 1 Kings 11. 7.  2 Kings 17. 18.
10 And had commanded him concerning this thing, that he
should not go after other gods:  but he kept not that which the twice. Cp. 3. 5;  9. 2.


LORD commanded him. 11-40. JEHOVAH.   PUNISHMENT.


11 Wherefore the LORD said unto Solomon, Forasmuch as 10 had commanded him. Cp. 6. 12.
commanded. Some codices, with three early printed
this is done of thee, and thou hast not kept My covenant and
 editions, Sept., Syr., and Vulg., add "him".
My statutes, which I have commanded thee, I will surely 11 will surely rend = a rending I will rend.  Fig. Polyptoton. Ap. 6.
rend the kingdom from thee, and will give it to thy servant. See note on Gen. 26. 28. 13
12 Notwithstanding in thy days I will not do it for David thy 13 one tribe. Benjamin reckoned as part of Judah.


father's sake: but I will rend it out of the hand of thy son. 14-40. EXECUTION  (ADVERSARIES).


13 Howbeit I will not rend away all the kingdom; but will
14 an adversary = a Satan.


give one tribe to thy son for David My servant's sake, and
for Jerusalem's sake which I have chosen.
14 And the LORD stirred up a Satan unto Solomon, Hadad
the Edomite:  he was of the king's seed in Edom.
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11. 15. I KINGS. 11. 36.


 15 it came to pass, &c. Cp. 2 Sam. 8. 3-13.  Joab.  Cp. Ps.
15 For it came to pass, when David was in Edom, and Joab the
60, title, and see note on 2 Sam. 8. 13.
captain of the host was gone up to bury the slain, after he had
 every male: i.e. who did not flee, as Hadad did.
smitten every male [whom he found ] in Edom; Supply Fig. Ellipsis (Ap. 6), "every male [whom he found] in
 Edom".  See v. 17.
16 (For six months did Joab remain there with all Israel, until he
had cut off every male in Edom:) 16 six months. See note on 2 Sam. 8. 13. Note also Fig.
Parenthesis (Ap. 6), v. 16.
17 That Hadad fled, he and certain Edomites of his father's servants
21 slept with his fathers. See note on Deut. 31.16.
with him, to go into Egypt; Hadad being yet a little child. 25 reigned. David had subdued Syria (2 Sam. 8. 3, 6; 10. 8,
18 And they arose out of Midian, and came to Paran:  and they took 18).  Now Solomon, weakened by sin, loses Syria.
26 Ephrathite = Ephraimite, as in 1 Sam. 1.1. Not a
men with them out of Paran, and they came to Egypt, unto Pharaoh
Bethlehemite, as in Ruth 1. 2.  Zealous therefore for his tribe
king of Egypt; which gave him an house, and appointed him as against Judah.
victuals, and gave him land. a widow. One of the nine widows mentioned in Scripture.
19 And Hadad found great favour in the sight of Pharaoh, so that he See note on Gen. 38. 19.
27 Millo = the Millo.    See note on 9.15.
gave him to wife the sister of his own wife, the sister of Tahpenes
28 made him ruler = gave him oversight, which gave him
the queen. opportunity to oppress and create disaffection.
20 And the sister of Tahpenes bare him Genubath his son, whom 29 Ahijah. He afterwards rebuked Jeroboam (14.
Tahpenes weaned in Pharaoh's house:  and Genubath was in 6-16).
Shilonite = a native of Shiloh, where the Tabernacle and Ark
Pharaoh's household among the sons of Pharaoh. bad been placed (Josh. 18. 1). Cp. 1 Sam. 4:3.


21 And when Hadad heard in Egypt that David slept with his 30 rent it. Symbolic act. Cp. 22. 11. Isa. 20. 2, &c. Jer. 19.
fathers, and that Joab the captain of the host was dead, Hadad said to 1-13.  Ezek. 12. 1-20.  Zech. 11. 7, 10, 14.
31 ten. Levi not reckoned.
Pharaoh, Let me depart, that I may go to mine own country.
32 one tribe. Put for, and including, Simeon, Benjamin, and
22 Then Pharaoh said unto him, But what hast thou lacked with me, Levi, and others who joined later.  Cp. 12.23. 2Chron. 11. 13;
that, behold, thou seekest to go to thine own country? And he 15. 9.
answered, Nothing:  howbeit let me go in any wise. 33 Ashtoreth.
14 Chemosh. See notes on} vv. 5 and 7.
23 And God stirred him up another adversary, Rezon the son of
Milcom.
Eliadah, which fled from his lord Hadadezer king of Zobah: 35 I will take. Fulfilled in 12. 16-20.
24 And he gathered men unto him, and became captain over a band, 36 light = lamp. Cp. the "furnace" of 8. 51, and see note on
Gen. 15.17. Cp. 2 Kings 8.19.  Ps. 18. 28.  Jer. 25. 10 :
when David slew them of Zobah:  and they went to Damascus, and
implying the continued existence of the Divine purpose.
dwelt therein, and reigned in Damascus.


25 And he was the Satan to Israel all the days of Solomon, 32 (But he shall have one tribe for My servant
beside the mischief that Hadad did:  and he abhorred Israel, and David's sake, and for Jerusalem's sake, the city which
 I have chosen out of all the tribes of Israel:)
reigned over Syria.
26 And Jeroboam the son of Nebat, an Ephraimite of Zereda, 33 Because that they have forsaken Me, and have


Solomon's servant, whose mother's name was Zeruah, a widow worshipped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians,


woman, even he lifted up his hand against the king. Chemosh the god of the Moabites, and Milcom the
27 And this was the cause that he lifted up his hand against the god of the sons of Ammon, and have not walked in
My ways, to do that which is right in Mine eyes, and
king:  Solomon built the Millo, and repaired the breaches of the
to keep My statutes and My judgments, as did David
city of David his father.
his father.
28 And the man Jeroboam was a mighty man of valour:  and
34 Howbeit I will not take the whole kingdom out of
Solomon seeing the young man that he was industrious, he gave
his hand:  but I will make him prince all the days of
him oversight over all the charge of the house of Joseph.
his life for David My servant's sake, whom I chose,
29 And it came to pass at that time when Jeroboam went out of
 because he kept My commandments and My statutes:
Jerusalem, that the prophet Ahijah the Shilonite found him in
35 But I will take the kingdom out of his son's hand,
the way; and he had clad himself with a new garment; and they
and will give it unto thee, even ten tribes.
two were alone in the field: 36 And unto his son will I give one tribe, that David
30 And Ahijah caught the new garment that was on him, and My servant may have a lamp alway before Me in


rent it in twelve pieces: Jerusalem, the city which I have chosen Me to put My
31 And he said to Jeroboam, Take thee ten pieces:  for thus saith name there.
*
the LORD, the God of Israel, Behold, I will rend the kingdom


out of the hand of Solomon, and will give ten tribes to thee:


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11. 37. I KINGS. 12. 15.


37 And I will take thee, and thou shalt reign according to all that thy 38 if thou wilt hearken. Same conditions as in 9. 4.
a sure house: i.e. a long and unbroken line of descendants.
soul desireth, and shalt be king over Israel.
 39 not for ever. Thus confirming the prophecy of Gen. 49.
38 And it shall be, if thou wilt hearken unto all that I command 10, which refers to the tribal pre-eminence of Judah (not
thee, and wilt walk in My ways, and do that is right in My sight, to national existence), which was preserved till fulfilled in
keep My statutes and My commandments, as David My servant did; Christ, when David's line ended in Him.
 40 Egypt. This explains much.  He must have thought of
that I will be with thee, and build thee a sure house, as I built for
Joseph's exaltation, and the blessing pronounced on Ephraim
David, and will give Israel unto thee. (Gen. 49. 13-20; 49. 22-26); and by Moses (Deut. 33. 13-17).
 It explains also the origin of the "golden calves" (12. 28).
39 And I will for this afflict the seed of David, but not for ever.
41 written in the book. See note on Ex. 17. 14.
40 Solomon sought therefore to kill Jeroboam.  And Jeroboam
 42 forty years : 920-880 B. C.
arose, and fled into Egypt, unto Shishak king of Egypt, and was in
12:1-15. REHOBOAM.
Egypt until the death of Solomon.
1. Rehoboam.   Accession to kingdom.
41 And the rest of the acts of Solomon, and all that he did, and his
2-4. Petition of Jeroboam.   Made.


wisdom, are they not written in the book of the acts of Solomon? 5. Dismissal.
42 And the time that Solomon reigned in Jerusalem over all Israel 6-11. Answer considered.
 12. Return.
was forty years.
21 13, 14. Petition of Jeroboam.   Answered.
43 And Solomon slept with his fathers, and was buried in the city 15. Rehoboam.   Rending of kingdom.


of David his father:  and Rehoboam his son reigned in his stead. 1 Shechem. A national sanctuary (Josh. 24. l).  Now
 Nablous, corruption of Neapolis, the (New town) of
12 And Rehoboam went to Shechem:  for all Israel were come
Vespasian.  The site of Abraham's first altar.  Jacob's first
to Shechem to make him king. home.  Here the tribes met.  Here Joseph was buried.  All this
2 And it came to pass, when Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who was before Jebus became Jerusalem. Hence the envy of Ephraim
for Judah (Isa. 11. 13). Degraded by new name, Sychar =
yet in Egypt, heard of it, (for he was fled from the presence of king
drunkenness (Isa. 28. 1-7).  Yet here alone in all the world is
Solomon, and Jeroboam dwelt in Egypt;) the Paschal lamb still slain.
3 That they sent and called him.  And Jeroboam and all the 3 congregation = assembly.
assembly of Israel came, and spake unto Rehoboam, saying, 4 made our yoke grievous. Made by Jeroboam himself
 owing to the opportunity afforded by Solomon's action (11.
4 Thy father made our yoke grievous:  now therefore make thou
28).
the grievous service of thy father, and his heavy yoke which he put 7 for ever. Heb. all the days :  i.e. always.
upon us, lighter, and we will serve thee. 10 My little finger. Fig. Parotmia. Ap. 6.
11 whips. The badge of the taskmaster on the Egyptian
5 And he said unto them, Depart yet for three days, then come again
monuments.  Cp. Ex. 1. 10, 14; 5. 13, 14 ("beaten").




to me.  And the People departed. scorpions. A knotted whip, so called ; as we call another
6 And king Rehoboam consulted with the old men, that stood before kind of whip the "cat".
Solomon his father while he yet lived, and said, How do ye advise 12 as = according as.
13 gave him = counseled him.
that I may answer this People?
15 the cause = the turning (of events), or overruling.
7 And they spake unto him, saying, If thou wilt be a servant unto
this people this day, and wilt serve them, and answer them, and
speak good words to them, then they will be thy servants always.
8 But he forsook the counsel of the old men, which they had 12 So Jeroboam and all the People came to
given him, and consulted with the young men that were grown Rehoboam the third day, according as the king had
up with him, and which stood before him: appointed, saying, Come to me again the third day.
13 And the king answered the People roughly, and
9 And he said unto them, What counsel give ye that we may
forsook the old men's counsel that they counseled
answer this People, who have spoken to me, saying, Make the
him;
yoke which thy father did put upon us lighter?
14 And spake to them after the counsel of the young
10 And the young men that were grown up with him spake
men, saying, My father made your yoke heavy, and I
unto him, saying, Thus shalt thou speak unto this People that will add to your yoke:  my father also chastised you
spake unto thee, saying, Thy father made our yoke heavy, but 11 11
with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.
make thou it lighter unto us; thus shalt thou say unto them, 15 Wherefore the king hearkened not unto the
*
My little finger shall be thicker than my father's loins. People; for the overruling was from the LORD, that
11 And now whereas my father did lade you with a heavy He might perform His saying, which the LORD
yoke, I will add to your yoke:  my father hath chastised you spake by Ahijah the Shilonite unto Jeroboam the son
 of Nebat.
with whips, but I will chastise you with knotted whips.
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12. 16. I KINGS. 12. 29.


16 So when all Israel saw that the king hearkened not unto them, the 16 What portion…? Fig. Erotesis. Ap. 6.
* the son of Jesse. Used in contempt.  Cp. l Sam. 16.
people answered the king, saying, What portion have we in David?
 18; 20. 31; 22. 7, 8, 9; 25.10.  2 Sam. 20. l.
neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse: to your gods, O Israel: to your tents. One of the emendations of the
now see to thine own house, David. So Israel departed unto their tents. Sopherim. Ap. 33.  The primitive text was "to your
 gods", because the sin here was apostasy from
17 But as for the sons of Israel which dwelt in the cities of Judah,
Jehovah's worship in Jerusalem.  Two letters
Rehoboam reigned over them.
transposed made it read "to your tents".  See note on
18 Then king Rehoboam sent Adoram, who was over the tribute; and all 1Sam. 20. l, and cp. 2 Chron. 10. 16.
 17 children = sons.
Israel stoned him with stones, that he died.  Therefore king Rehoboam
 Israel which dwelt in…Judah. Here was a nucleus
made speed to get him up to his chariot, to flee to Jerusalem [from
of true worshippers constantly increased (l Kings 12.
Shechem]. 19.  l Chron. 9. 3. 2 Chron. 10. 17; 11. 3,16, 17; 15. 9;


19 So Israel rebelled against the house of David unto this day. 16. l; 19. 8; 23. 2; 30. 1, 5, 10, 11; 31. 6).  In Ezra 1. 5;
20 And it came to pass, when all Israel heard that Jeroboam was come 2. 2, 59, 70; 7. 13; 9. 1; 10. 5, those returning of
Judah's captivity are called "of Israel", and "all Israel",
again, that they sent and called him unto the congregation, and made him
2. 2, 70; 3. l; 6. 21; 7. 10,13; 8. 25; 9. l; 10.1, 2, 5,
king over all Israel:  there was none that followed the house of David, but 10,25.  Neh. 2. 10; 7. 7,61,73; 8. 17; 10.33; 11.3;
 12.47.  Judah was thus always representative of "all
the tribe of Judah only.
21 And when Rehoboam was come to Jerusalem, he assembled all the Israel".  Hence Acts 4. 27, "the People of Israel", and
 Acts 2.14, 22,36, "of Judah".  The two words are used
house of Judah, with the tribe of Benjamin, an hundred and fourscore interchangeably, except where otherwise stated. See
thousand chosen men, which were warriors, to fight against the house of note on "all the house of Israel", Ex. 16. 31. Also on
Israel, to bring the kingdom again to Rehoboam the son of Solomon. 1Chron. 22.17; 23. 2.  2 Chron. 12. 6, "princes of
 Israel", used of Judah before the division.  Also, on the
22 But the word of God came unto Shemaiah the man of God, saying,
cause of the increase of Judah, see note on 2 Chron.
23 Speak unto Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, king of Judah, and unto 13. 3.
all the house of Judah and Benjamin, and to the remnant of the People, 18 stoned him. One of the nine stonings recorded
saying, See note on Lev. 24.14.
made speed. Heb. strengthened himself.
24 Thus saith the LORD, Ye shall not go up, nor fight against your
to Jerusalem: from Shechem.
brethren the sons of Israel:  return every man to his house; for the 19 unto this day. Cp. 8. 8.  This was written
division of the kingdom is from Me.  They hearkened therefore to the certainly before the removal of Israel in 2 Kings 17.


word of the LORD, and returned to depart, according to the word of the 12:20—14:20. ISRAEL.   JEROBOAM I.


LORD. 12:20. Jeroboam. Accession.
25 Then Jeroboam rebuilt Shechem in hill country Ephraim, and dwelt 12:21-24. Reign.   Assured.
 12:25—14:18. Reign.   Events.
therein; and went out from thence, and built Penuel.
14:19, 20. Jeroboam.   Record.
26 And Jeroboam said in his heart, Now shall the kingdom return to the
20 Judah only. See note on "one tribe" (11. 32).
house of David: 21 an hundred, &c. 180,000.  In David's time there
 were 470,000.  See note on 2 Sam. 24. 9,
27 If this People go up to do sacrifice in the house of the LORD at
Jerusalem, then shall the heart of this People turn again unto their lord, 22 Shemaiah. Cp. 2 Chron. 11. 2; 12. 5.
the man of God = prophet.  See the first occurrence,
even unto Rehoboam king of Judah, and they shall kill me, and go again Deut. 33. l, and Ap. 49.
to Rehoboam king of Judah. 24 this thing : i. e. the division of the kingdom. Not
28 Whereupon the king took counsel ([but not of Jehovah]), and made the rebellion of Jeroboam.  Cp. 2 Chron. 13. 4-12.


two calves of gold, and said unto them, It is too much for you to go up to 12:25—14:18. REIGN.   EVENTS.


*
Jerusalem: behold thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the 25 built = rebuilt, or repaired.  This doubtless
land of Egypt. included increased fortification (2 Chron. 11. 11).
 mount = hill-country.
29 And he set the one in Beth-el, and the other put he in Dan. Penuel. On east of Jordan (Gen. 32. 30.   Judg. 8. 8),


12:26-33. IDOLATRY.   COMMENCED.
27 If this People. His apostasy was willful, designed, and deliberate.


12:28-33. JEROBOAM.   EXPEDIENTS.
28-30.          Idolatry.   The two calves.
31-33.          Idolatry.   The high places.


28 took counsel: "but not of Jehovah" (Isa. 30. 1). behold. Fig. Asterismos. Ap. 6. Cp. Ex. 32. 4.  Hos. 8. 5, 6; 10. 5. 29 one in Beth-el: was
desecrated by Josiah (2 Kings 23. 15). in Dan. See note on Gen. 49. 17.  Carried away by Tiglath-pileser (2 Kings 15. 29).  The sons of Jonathan, the
grandson of Moses (see note on Judg. 18. 30), were ready to act as priests.


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12. 30. I KINGS. 13. 15.


 30 became a sin. See Ap. 44. i.  Hence the repeated stigma
30 And this thing became a sin:  for the People went to worship
who "made Israel to sin".  Cp. 13. 34 ; 14. 16;
before the one, even unto Dan.
15. 26, 30, 34;  16. 2, 19, 26, &c.
31 And he made a temple of high places, and made priests of the 31 house = a temple.  Not merely "high places".
lowest of the People, which were not of the sons of Levi. 33 offered = offered up.  Ap. 43. I. vi.
32 And Jeroboam ordained a feast in the eighth month, on the So did he, &c. Note the Fig. Parenthesis.  Ap. 6.
33 of his own heart. Heb. text reads "by himself". Some
fifteenth day of the month, like unto the feast that is in Judah, and
* codices, with three early printed editions, Aram., Sept., Syr.,
he offered up upon the altar. (So did he in Bethel,) sacrificing and Vulg., read as A.V.  Man-made feasts go with man-made
unto the calves that he had made:  and he placed in Bethel the priests (v. 31).


priests of the high places which he had made.
13:1-31. WARNING.  BY MAN OF GOD.
33 So he offered up upon the altar which he had made in Bethel
1, 2. Jeroboam.   Warned.
the fifteenth day of the eighth month, even in the month which he 3. Sign given.
had devised by himself; and ordained a feast unto the sons of 4. Jeroboam.   Smitten.                    Arrival.
5. Sign fulfilled. }
Israel:  and he offered upon the altar, and burnt incense.
6. Jeroboam.   Healed.
 7-10. Obedience.
13 And, behold, there came a man of God out of Judah by the 11-14. Old prophet.
word of the LORD unto Bethel:  and Jeroboam stood by the altar 15-19. Disobedience.                               Return.}
20-32. Old prophet.
to burn incense.
2 And he cried against the altar in the word of the LORD, and said, 1 a man of God. Cp. Deut. 33. l, and see Ap. 49.
* 2 O altar, altar. Figs. Apostrophe and Epizeuxis.
O altar, altar, thus saith the LORD; Behold, a son shall be born
 child = son.
unto the house of David, Josiah by name; and upon thee shall he
Josiah by name. Cyrus is the only other so foretold (177 years
slaughter the priests of the high places that burn incense upon before).  Josiah knew (2 Kings 23. 17, 18). Cyrus knew (2
 Chron. 36. 22, 23.  Isa. 44. 28).
thee, and human bones shall be burnt upon thee.
 offer (in sacrifice) = slay, or slaughter.  Ap. 43. I. iv.
3 And he gave a sign the same day, saying, This is the sign which
2 men's: human.  Heb. 'adam.  Ap. 14. I.
the LORD hath spoken; Behold, the altar shall be rent, and the shall be.  This was fulfilled in 2 Kings 23. 16 (360 years later).
ashes that are upon it shall be poured out. 3 a sign. We have similar signs in Ex. 3.12. 2 Kings 19. 29;
4 And it came to pass, when king Jeroboam heard the saying of the 20. 8.  Isa. 7. 14;  8 18.
4 put forth his hand. One of the eleven rulers who thus
man of God, which had cried against the altar in Bethel, that he
assaulted Jehovah's witnesses.  See note on Ex. 10. 28.


put forth his hand from the altar, saying, Lay hold on him. And 6 thy God. He dare not say "my God".
his hand, which he put forth against him, dried up, so that he could 8 half thine house. Remembering Num. 22:18; 24:13.
not pull it in again to him. 11 in Beth-el. A true prophet could not have remained there.
Cp. 2 Chron. 11. 16, 17.
5 The altar also was rent, and the ashes poured out from the altar, and his sons. Sept. reads "whose sons".
according to the sign which the man of God had given by the word the words. Syr. and Vulg, read "and the words".
of the LORD. 13 me = for me. him = for him.
14 an oak = the oak.
6 And the king answered and said unto the man of God, Intreat


now the face of the LORD thy God, and pray for me, that my
hand may be restored me again.  And the man of God besought the
LORD, and the
king's hand was restored him again, and became as it was before. the words which he had spoken unto the king, them
7 And the king said unto the man of God, Come home with me, they told also to their father.
and refresh thyself, and I will give thee a reward. 12 And their father said unto them, What way went
8 And the man of God said unto the king, If thou wilt give me he? For his sons had seen what way the man of God
 went, which came from Judah.
half thine house, I will not go in with thee, neither will I eat
bread nor drink water in this place: 13 And he said unto his sons, Saddle for me the ass.
So they saddled for him the ass:  and he rode
9 For so was it charged me by the word of the LORD, saying, Eat
thereon,
no bread, nor drink water, nor turn again by the same way that
14 And went after the man of God, and found him
thou camest.
sitting under the oak:  and he said unto him, Art
10 So he went another way, and returned not by the way that he
thou the man of God that camest from Judah? And
came to Bethel.
he said, I am.
11 Now there dwelt an old prophet in Bethel; and his sons came
15 Then he said unto him, Come home with me, and
and told him all the works that the man of God had done that day
eat bread.


in Bethel:
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13. 16. I KINGS. 14. 3.


16 And he said, I may not return with thee, nor go in with thee: 17 eat no bread. To avoid what might have been offered to
idols.
neither will I eat bread nor drink water with thee in this place:
 18 an angel spake. A solemn warning for all who listen to
17 For it was said to me by the word of the LORD, Thou shalt eat any revelation outside Scripture which purports to come from
no bread nor drink water there, nor turn again to go by the way that God, even though an "old prophet" asserts it.  Cp. Gal. 1. 8,
thou camest. 9.  Of all such it may be said "he lied unto him".
21 disobeyed = rebelled against.  The same expression used
18 He said unto him, I am a prophet also as thou art; and an angel
of Moses and Aaron at Meribah (Num. 20. 24;  27. 14).
spake unto me by the word of the LORD, saying, Bring him back Safety found only in the path of obedience. Cp. v. 26.
with thee into thine house, that he may eat bread and drink water. 22 sepulchre. Heb. keber, a burying-place.
23 to wit = that is to say.
But he lied unto him.
24 a lion. For lions in Palestine see Judg. 14. 5. l Sam. 17.
19 So he went back with him, and did eat bread in his house, and 34.  2 Sam. 23. 20.  1 Kings 20. 36.
drank water. 26 disobedient, by listening to the alleged word of an angel,
20 And it came to pass, as they sat at the table, that the word of the instead of obeying the voice of Jehovah. See note on v. 18.
which He spake. Cp. v. 22.
LORD came unto the prophet that brought him back:
30 grave = sepulchre.  Heb. keber, a burying-place, a pit.
21 And he cried unto the man of God that came from Judah, saying, Cp. Ap. 35.
 31 lay my bones : i. e. lay them not with the bones of those
Thus saith the LORD, Forasmuch as thou hast disobeyed the
mouth of the LORD, and hast not kept the commandment which the referred to in v. 2.  Cp. 2 Kings 23.18.
32 he cried. Cp. v. 2.
LORD thy God commanded thee, 33 became one of the priests. Sept., Syr., and Vulg, reads
22 But camest back, and hast eaten bread and drunk water in the "became priest".
place, of the which the LORD did say to thee, Eat no bread, and 34 became sin = became the sin.  See note on 12.30.


drink no water; thy carcase shall not come unto the burying place of 14:1-17. WARNING FROM AHIJAH.


thy fathers. 3 get thee to Shiloh. He had no confidence in his own gods.
23 And it came to pass, after he had eaten bread, and after he had They were only political expedients.
3 cruse = flask, or bottle.
drunk, that he saddled for him the ass, that is to say, for the prophet
he. Some codices, with Sept., read "and he".
whom he had brought back.


24 And when he was gone, a lion met him by the way, and slew
him: and his carcase was cast in the way, and the ass stood by it, the
lion also stood by the carcase.
25 And, behold, men passed by, and saw the carcase cast in the way,
and the lion standing by the carcase:  and they came and told it in and against all the houses of the high places which
the city where the old prophet dwelt. are in the cities of Samaria, shall surely come to
26 And when the prophet that brought him back from the way heard pass.
 33 After this thing Jeroboam returned not from his
thereof, he said, It is the man of God, who was disobedient unto
the word of the LORD:  therefore the LORD hath delivered him evil way, but made again of the lowest of the
unto the lion, which hath torn him, and slain him, according to the People priests of the high places:  whosoever
 would, he consecrated him, and he became priest
word of the LORD, which He spake unto him.
of the high places.
27 And he spake to his sons, saying, Saddle for me the ass.  And
34 And this thing became the sin unto the house
they saddled him.
of Jeroboam, even to cut it off, and to destroy it
28 And he went and found his carcase cast in the way, and the ass
from off the face of the earth.
and the lion standing by the carcase:  the lion had not eaten the
carcase, nor torn the ass. 14 At that time Abijah the son of Jeroboam fell
29 And the prophet took up the carcase of the man of God, and laid sick.
it upon the ass, and brought it back:  and the old prophet came to 2 And Jeroboam said to his wife, Arise, I pray
the city, to mourn and to bury him. thee, and disguise thyself, that thou be not known


30 And he laid his carcase in his own sepulchre; and they mourned to be the wife of Jeroboam; and get thee to
over him, saying, Alas, my brother! Shiloh: behold, there is Ahijah the prophet, which
31 And it came to pass, after he had buried him, that he spake to his told me that I should be king over this People.
sons, saying, When I am dead, then bury me in the sepulchre 3 And take with thee ten loaves, and cracknels,
 and a bottle of honey, and go to him: and he shall
wherein the man of God is buried; lay my bones beside his bones:
 tell thee what shall become of the child.
32 For the saying which he cried by the word of the LORD against
the altar in Bethel,
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14. 4. I KINGS. 14. 20.


4 And Jeroboam's wife did so, and arose, and went to Shiloh, and 4 were set. Cp. 1 Sam. 4. 15.  One of the  nine afflicted with
blindness.  See note on Gen. 19. 11.
came to the house of Ahijah.  But Ahijah could not see; for his eyes
 6 door = entrance.
were set by reason of his age. 9 all Not merely kings, but all other rulers.  No
5 And the LORD said unto Ahijah, Behold, the wife of Jeroboam anachronism.
cometh to ask a thing of thee for her son; for he is sick:  thus and other gods. Jehovah does not recognize the calves as being
what Jeroboam intended, mere political expedients.  See note
thus shalt thou say unto her: for it shall be, when she cometh in, that
on v. 2.
she shall feign herself to be another woman. 10 him that, &c. = every male.
6 And it was so, when Ahijah heard the sound of her feet as she shut up and left. The commentators speak of the text being
obscure or corrupt.  But 'azab is a Homonym, meaning :  (1)
came in at the entrance, that he said, Come in, thou wife of
to leave (as in Gen. 2. 24;  39. 6.  Neh.
Jeroboam; why feignest thou thyself to be another? for I am sent to 5. 10.  Ps. 49. 10. Mai. 4. l);  and (2) to restore, repair, fortify
thee with heavy tidings. (as in Neh. 3. 8.  Ex. 23. 5 (see note there). Deut. 32. 36.  l
7 Go, tell Jeroboam, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Forasmuch Kings 14. 10.  2 Kings 14. 26. Jer. 49. 25).  Here it means
"strengthened and fortified" :  i. e. they will not escape.  Cp.
as I exalted thee from among the People, and made thee prince over
21. 21.   2 Kings 9. 8.
My People Israel, as = according as.
e
8 And rent the kingdom away from the house of David, and gave it 13 grave = a burying-place.  Heb. keber, not sh ol.
thee:  and yet thou hast not been as My servant David, who kept My 14 but what ? even now. Here again the text is supposed to
be obscure.  It is on account of the Figures of speech (Ap. 6)
commandments, and who followed Me with all his heart, to do that used :  (1) Ellipsis = "But what [am I saying ‘That day' ?]
only which was right in Mine eyes; Even now [hath He raised him up]".  (2) Note the Fig.
 Amphidiorthosis. Ap. 6.
9 But hast done evil above all that were before thee:  for thou hast
 15 smite Israel, [shaking him] as a reed is shaken, &c.
gone and made thee other gods, and molten images, to provoke Me
The Fig. Ellipsis (Ap. 6) to be thus supplied.
to anger, and hast cast Me behind thy back: this good land. Occurs only here and Josh. 23:13, 15.
10 Therefore, behold, I will bring evil upon the house of Jeroboam, the river : i. e. the Euphrates. groves = 'Asherim.
 16 made Israel to sin. The first of twenty-one occurrences
and will cut off from Jeroboam every male, and him that is shut up
in these two books:  14. 16; 15. 26, 30, 34; 16. 19, 26; 21. 22;
and left in Israel, and will take away the remnant of the house of
22. 52.  2 Kings 3. 3; 10. 29, 31; 13. 2, 6, 11; 14. 24; 15. 9,
Jeroboam, according as a man taketh away dung, till it be all gone. 18, 24, 28; 16. 13; 17. 21; 23. 15.
11 Him that dieth of Jeroboam in the city shall the dogs eat; and him 17 Tirzah. Afterward made the capital by Baasha (15. 21),
till Samaria was built by Omri (15. 33; 16. 8,
that dieth in the field shall the fowls of the air eat:  for the LORD
15, 23, 24).
hath spoken it. 19 the rest. See 2 Chron. 13. 3-20.
12 Arise thou therefore, get thee to thine own house: and when thy 20 two and twenty years. In 15. 25 Nadab reigned two
feet enter into the city, the child shall die. years, and began in the second year of Asa, which was the
twenty-first of Jeroboam, so that Nadab's two years fall
13 And all Israel shall mourn for him, and bury him:  for he only of
within the time of his father's twenty-two. But from 2 Chron.


Jeroboam shall come to the grave, because in him there is found 13. 20 we learn that Jeroboam was stricken with a
some good thing toward the LORD God of Israel in the house of languishing disease, in which time Nadab reigned with him,
Jeroboam. and died the same year as his father.  The number "twenty-
two" is associated with disorganization and disintegration ( =
14 Moreover the LORD shall raise Him up a king over Israel, who 2x11).  It is associated with the worst two reigns :  Jeroboam,
shall cut off the house of Jeroboam that day:  but what [am I saying, here; and Ahab in 16. 29.
‘That day’] ?  Even now [hath He raised him up]. slept with his fathers = died.  See notes on Deut, 31. 16.
 Said of the wicked Jeroboam and Ahab, as well as of good
15 For the LORD shall smite Israel, [shaking him] as a reed is
David and Jehoshaphat.
shaken in the water, and he shall root up Israel out of this good land,
14:21—15:24. JUDAH.
which he gave to their fathers, and shall scatter them beyond the
14:21-31.           Rehoboam.
river, because they have made their groves, provoking the LORD to 15:1-8.              Abijam.
anger. 15:9-24.            Asa.
16 And he shall give Israel up because of the sins of Jeroboam, who
did sin, and who made Israel to sin.


17 And Jeroboam's wife arose, and departed, and came to Tirzah:
and when she came to the threshold of the entrance, the child died; the chronicles of the kings of Israel.
18 And they buried him; and all Israel mourned for him, according 20 And the days which Jeroboam reigned were


to the word of the LORD, which He spake by the hand of His two and twenty years:  and he died, and Nadab
servant Ahijah the prophet. his son reigned in his stead.


19 And the rest of the acts of Jeroboam, how he warred, and how
he reigned, behold, they are written in the book of
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14. 21. I KINGS. 15. 13.


21 And Rehoboam the son of Solomon reigned in Judah.  Rehoboam was 21 mother's name. Mentioned here and in the case of
forty and one years old when he began to reign, and he reigned seventeen each successive king (cp. 15. 10; 22. 42.  2 Kings 8. 26,
&c.); because the king's character stands connected with
years in Jerusalem, the city which the LORD did choose out of all the
the mother;  and because of the position which the queen
O
tribes of Israel, to put his name there.  And his mother's name was dowager occupied (cp. 2. 19: 15. 13. Jer. 13. 18).
 Ammonitess. Twice mentioned, and in connection with
Naamah an Ammonitess.
22 And Judah did evil in the sight of the LORD, and they provoked Him Jerusalem.  See v. 31.
* 22 jealousy. Fig. Anthropopatheia. Ap. 6.
to jealousy with their sins which they had committed, above all that
23 groves. See note on Ex. 34. 13, and Ap. 42.
their fathers had done. 24 sodomites. Committers of the sin of Sodom (Gen. 19).
O
23 For they also built them high places, and images, and groves, on Male prostitutes, dedicated to idolatry involving this sin.
every high hill, and under every green tree. Connected with the 'Asherah. Ap. 42.  Cp. Dent. 23. 17.  l
 Kings 15. 12; 22. 46.
24 And there were also sodomites in the land: and they did according
children = sons.
to all the abominations of the nations which the LORD cast out before
25 Shishak. Founder of the twenty-second dynasty.
the sons of Israel. against. See note on Judg. 1. 8, and Ap. 53.
25 (And it came to pass in the fifth year of king Rehoboam, that Shishak 26 all = "all [he could find]".
 all the shields. Some codices, with three early printed
king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem:
editions, and Vulg., omit "all".
26 And he took away the treasures of the house of the LORD, and the
30 Rehoboam. Being named first he was probably the
treasures of the king's house; he even took away all [he could find]:  and aggressor, contrary to 12. 24.
he took away … the shields of gold which Solomon had made. 31 Abijam = Abijah.


27 And king Rehoboam made in their stead brasen shields, and 15:1-8. ABIJAH.
committed them unto the hands of the chief of the guard, which kept the
1, 2      Introduction.
entrance of the king's house. 3.         Sins.  Committed.
28 And it was so, when the king went into the house of the LORD, that 4, 5.     Divine forbearance.
6.         Sins.   Punished.
the guard bare them, and brought them back into the guard chamber.) 7, 8.     Conclusion.
29 Now the rest of the acts of Rehoboam, and all that he did, are they not
1 Abijam = Abijah.
written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? 2 Three years. Not full years, for he died in the twentieth


30 And there was war between Rehoboam and Jeroboam all their days. year of Jeroboam (v. 9).
20 mother's. Put by Fig. Synecdoche (of Genus) for ancestor.
31 And Rehoboam died, and was buried with his fathers in the city of
21 Here = grandmother. Maachah, or Michaiah (2 Chron. 13.
David.  And his mother's name was Naamah an Ammonitess.  And
2).
Abijah his son reigned in his stead.
Abishalom = Absalom (2 Chron. 11. 21).
3 father. Put by Fig. Synecdoche (of Genus), Ap. 6, for
15 Now in the eighteenth year of king Jeroboam the son of Nebat
ancestor.
reigned Abijah over Judah. 4 lamp. See note on 11. 36.  Peculiarly used of David.
 6 And, &c. This is repeated (from 14. 30) to complete
2 Three years reigned he in Jerusalem.  And his grandmother’s name
was Michaiah, the daughter of Absalom. Structure above.
7 the rest. See 2 Chron. 13. 3, &c.
3 And he walked in all the sins of his father, which he had done before
8 slept with his fathers. See note on 14.20.
him:  and his heart was not perfect with the LORD his God, as the heart
15:9-24. ASA.
of David his ancestor.
 9, 10.      Introduction.
4 Nevertheless for David's sake did the LORD his God give him a lamp
11-15.     Events.   Religious.
in Jerusalem, to set up his son after him, and to establish Jerusalem: 16-22.     Events.   Military.
5 Because David did that which was right in the eyes of the LORD, and 23, 24.    Conclusion.


turned not aside from any thing that He commanded him all the days of 11 right. Therefore his days “long in the land” (v. 23).
his life, save only in the matter of Uriah the Hittite. Contemporary with seven Israelite kings.
 idols = filthy idols.
6 And there was war between Rehoboam and Jeroboam all the days
of his life.
 *
7 Now the rest of the acts of Abijam, and all that he did, are they not 11 And Asa did that which was right in the eyes
written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? And there of the LORD, as did David his ancestor.
was war between Abijam and Jeroboam.
12 And he took away the sodomites out of the
8 And Abijam died; and they buried him in the city of David:  and Asa land, and removed all the filthy idols that his
his son reigned in his stead. fathers had made.
9 And in the twentieth year of Jeroboam king of Israel reigned Asa 13 And also Michaiah his mother, even her he
over Judah. removed from being queen, because she had made
10 And forty and one years reigned he in Jerusalem.  And his a monstrous Asherah; and Asa destroyed her idol,
2
mother's name was michaiah, the daughter of Absalom. and burnt it by the brook Kidron.
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15. 14. I KINGS. 15. 31.


 14 not removed: not till the  reign  of Hezekiah (22. 43.
14 But the high places were not removed:  nevertheless Asa's
2 Kings 12. 3; 18. 4).
heart was perfect with the LORD all his days.
15 things…dedicated = holy things of his father.  See note on
15 And he brought in the holy things of his father, and the things Ex. 3. 5.


which himself had dedicated, into the house of the LORD, silver,
15:16-22. EVENTS.   MILITARY.
and gold, and vessels.
 16. War with Baasha.   Begun.
16 And there was war between Asa and Baasha king of Israel all 17. Baasha’s building of Ramah.   Begun.
their days. 18. Ben-hadad.   Subsidy to.
19. Former league appealed to.
17 And Baasha king of Israel went up against Judah, and built 20. Ben-hadad.   Help from.
 21. Baasha’s building of Ramah.   Left.
Ramah, that he might not suffer any to go out or come in to Asa
22. War with Baasha.   Ended.
king of Judah.
16 war. Only border fighting.  No campaign. Cp. v. 32.
18 Then Asa took all the silver and the gold that were left in the
 17 Ramah = the modern er Ram, five miles north of Jerusalem,
treasures of the house of the LORD, and the treasures of the which it was intended to menace.  See 2Chron. 16. l.
king's house, and delivered them into the hand of his servants: go out or come in. But in vain.  See 12. 27; 15. 9, &c.
and king Asa sent them to Ben-hadad, the son of Tabrimon, the 18 the. Some codices, with two early printed editions, read
"among the".
son of Hezion, king of Syria, that dwelt at Damascus, saying,
19 There is. Supply Fig. Ellipsis (Ap. 6). [Let there be.]
19 Let there be a covenant between me and thee, and between my league = covenant. and. Supply [as] instead of "and", behold.
*
father and thy father: behold, I have sent unto thee a present of Fig. Asterismos Ap. 6.
silver and gold; come and break thy covenant with Baasha king of 20 hosts = forces.
Ijon, &c. All in the neighbourhood of Gennesaret.
Israel, that he may depart from me. 21 dwelt in. Sept. and Vulg, read "returned to".  See note on
20 So Ben-hadad hearkened unto king Asa, and sent the captains 14. 17.
of the forces which he had against the cities of Israel, and smote 23 The rest. Cp. 2 Chron. 14. 9—15.10.
 are they not…? Fig. Erotesis. Ap. 6.
Ijon, and Dan, and Abel-beth-maachah, and all Cinneroth, with
24 father = forefather.  Fig. Synecdoche (of Species).
all the land of Naphtali.
15:25—22:40. ISRAEL.
21 And it came to pass, when Baasha heard thereof, that he left off
15:25-31. Nadab.
building of Ramah, and returned to Tirzah.
15:32—16:7. Baasha.
22 Then king Asa made a proclamation throughout all Judah; none 16:8-14. Elah.
was exempted:  and they took away the stones of Ramah, and the 16:15-20. Zimri.
 (¶ Interregnum, 16:21, 22.)
timber thereof, wherewith Baasha had builded; and king Asa built 16:23-28. Omri.
with them Geba of Benjamin, and Mizpah. 16:29—22:40. Ahab.


 25-31. NADAB.
23 The rest of all the acts of Asa, and all his might, and all that
*
he did, and the cities which he built, are they not written in the 26 evil. Heb. ra’a.  Ap. 44. viii.
book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? Nevertheless in the sin. Same as "evil", above.
made Israel to sin. See note on 14. 16.
time of his old age he was diseased in his feet. e
29 that breathed. Heb. n shamah. Ap. 16.
24 And Asa died, and was buried with his fathers in the city of the saying. Cp. 14. 7-11.
David his forefather:  and Jehoshaphat his son reigned in his
stead.
25 And Nadab the son of Jeroboam began to reign over Israel house of Jeroboam; he left not to Jeroboam any
in the second year of Asa king of Judah, and reigned over Israel
that breathed, until he had destroyed him,
two years.
according unto the saying of the LORD, which


26 And he did evil in the sight of the LORD, and walked in He spake by His servant Ahijah the Shilonite:


the way of his father, and in his sin wherewith he made Israel 30 Because of the sins of Jeroboam which he
26
to sin. sinned, and which he made Israel sin, by his
27 And Baasha the son of Ahijah, of the house of Issachar, provocation wherewith he provoked the LORD
conspired against him; and Baasha smote him at Gibbethon, God of Israel to anger.
which belonged to the Philistines; for Nadab and all Israel laid 31 Now the rest of the acts of Nadab, and all
*
siege to Gibbethon. that he did, are they not written in the book of
28 Even in the third year of Asa king of Judah did Baasha slay the chronicles of the kings of Israel?
him, and reigned in his stead.
29 And it came to pass, when he reigned, that he smote all the
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15. 32. I KINGS. 16. 19.


 15:32—1 BAASHA.
32 And there was war between Asa and Baasha king of Israel all
their days. 15:32, 33. Introduction.
15:34. Evil-doing.   Committed.
33 In the third year of Asa king of Judah began Baasha the son of
 16:1-4. Evil-doing.   Punished.
Ahijah to reign over all Israel in Tirzah, twenty and four years. 16:5-7. Conclusion.


34 And he did evil in the sight of the LORD, and walked in the way
26 32 war. Only border fighting (cp. vv. 16, 32.  2Chron. 14. 1;
of Jeroboam, and in his sin wherewith he made Israel to sin. 15.19);  no actual campaign, as in 2 Chron. 16. l.
 33 in Tirzah. See notes on 14. 17 and v. 21.
16 Then the word of the LORD came to Jehu the son of Hanani twenty and four years. Began in the third year of
against Baasha, saying, Asa.  Therefore he died in the twenty-sixth year of Asa (16.
2 Forasmuch as I exalted thee out of the dust, and made thee one 8).  Yet in the thirty-sixth year Baasha came and made war
against Judah (2 Chron. 16. l).  This would be nine or ten
raised up over My People Israel; and thou hast walked in the way years after he was dead.  But see note on 2 Chron. 16. 1,
of Jeroboam, and hast made My People Israel to sin, to provoke Me where the word "reign" should be rendered "kingdom":  i.e.
to anger with their sins; the thirty-sixth year from the kingdom of Israel.
* See Ap. 50. V.
3 Behold, I will take away the posterity of Baasha, and the
 16. 1 Jehu the son of Hanani. Cp. 2 Chron. 16. 7-10; 19. 2.
posterity of his house; and will make thy house like the house of
2 prince: or captain = one raised up.  Heb. nagid.
Jeroboam the son of Nebat. 3 like. Cp. 15. 29; 14. 11.
4 Him that dieth of Baasha in the city shall the dogs eat; and him 6 slept, &c. See note on Deut. 31. 16.


that dieth of his in the fields shall the fowls of the air eat. 8-14. ELAH.


5 Now the rest of the acts of Baasha, and what he did, and his 9 drinking himself drunk. Fig. Polyptoton (Ap. 6) for
might, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the emphasis.
kings of Israel? 11 not one, &c. =not one male.
kinsfolks = kinsmen-redeemers.
6 So Baasha died, and was buried in Tirzah:  and Elah his son
12 against. Some  codices read "unto".  Others read
reigned in his stead. "concerning".
7 And also by the hand of the prophet Jehu the son of Hanani came 13 vanities = idols.  Cp. v. 26.


the word of the LORD against Baasha, and against his house, even 15-20. ZIMRI.


for all the evil that he did in the sight of the LORD, in provoking 19 sins. Some codices read "sin", as in v. 26.  Committed not
Him to anger with the work of his hands, in being like the house of merely during the seven days' reign, but during his whole life,
Jeroboam; and because he killed him. of course.
make Israel to sin. See note on 14. 16.
8 In the twenty and sixth year of Asa king of Judah began Elah the
son of Baasha to reign over Israel in Tirzah, two years.
9 And his servant Zimri, captain of half his chariots, conspired
*
against him, as he was in Tirzah, drinking himself drunk in the
house of Arza steward of his house in Tirzah. 16 And the People that were encamped heard
10 And Zimri went in and smote him, and killed him, in the twenty say, Zimri hath conspired, and hath also slain
and seventh year of Asa king of Judah, and reigned in his stead. the king:  wherefore all Israel made Omri, the
11 And it came to pass, when he began to reign, as soon as he sat captain of the host, king over Israel that day in
on his throne, that he slew all the house of Baasha:  he left him not the camp.
one male, neither of his kinsmen-redeemers, nor of his friends. 17 And Omri went up from Gibbethon, and all
12 Thus did Zimri destroy all the house of Baasha, according to the
Israel with him, and they besieged Tirzah.
1
word of the LORD, which He spake concerning Baasha by Jehu
18 And it came to pass, when Zimri saw that
the prophet,
the city was taken, that he went into the palace
13 For all the sins of Baasha, and the sins of Elah his son, by which
of the king's house, and burnt the king's house
they sinned, and by which they made Israel to sin, in provoking the
over him with fire, and died,
LORD God of Israel to anger with their idols.
19 For his sins which he sinned in doing evil
14 Now the rest of the acts of Elah, and all that he did, are they not
in the sight of the LORD, in walking in the
written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel?
way of Jeroboam, and in his sin which he did,
15 In the twenty and seventh year of Asa king of Judah did Zimri


to make Israel to sin.
reign seven days in Tirzah.  And the People were encamped against
Gibbethon, which belonged to the Philistines.
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16. 20. I KINGS. 17. 1.


20 Now the rest of the acts of Zimri, and his treason that he 20 are they not written…? Fig. Erotesis.  Ap. 6.


 16:21, 22. ¶ p. 30 .INTERREGNUM.
wrought, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of


the kings of Israel? 21. People.   Division for Tibni.
21 Then were the People of Israel divided into two parts:  half of 22. People.   Prevalence for Omri.


the People followed Tibni the son of Ginath, to make him king; 22 Omri. Note the Introversion of these names in this verse.
and half followed Omri. 23-28. OMRI.


 23. Introduction.
22 But the People that followed Omri prevailed against the
24. Events.   Building Samaria.
People that followed Tibni the son of Ginath:  so Tibni died, and
25, 26. Events.   Evil-doing.
Omri reigned. 27, 28. Conclusion.


23 In the thirty and first year of Asa king of Judah began Omri
23 thirty and first year. He reigned twelve years (833-821),


to reign over Israel, twelve years: ( six years reigned he in and yet in v. 29 Ahab began in the thirty-eighth year of Asa.
Tirzah.) Omri began to reign de jure when he slew Zimri, in the twenty-
seventh year of Asa; but only de facto on the death of Tibni the
24 And he bought the hill Samaria of Shemer for two talents of
usurper.
silver, and built on the hill, and called the name of the city which six years. Beginning in Asa's thirty-first and ending in Asa's


he built, after the name of Shemer, lord of the hill, Samaria. thirty-eighth (v. 29).
25 But Omri wrought evil in the eyes of the LORD, and did 24 owner = lord.
Samaria.  This is the origin of the city.
worse than all that were before him.
26 made Israel to sin. See note on 14. 16.
26 For he walked in all the way of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, 27 which. Some codices, with four early printed editions, Sept.,
 and Syr., read "and all that".
and in his sin wherewith he made Israel to sin, to provoke the


LORD God of Israel to anger with their idols. 16:29—22:40. AHAB.


27 Now the rest of the acts of Omri and all that he did, and his 16:29-. Introduction.
*
might that he shewed, are they not written in the book of the 16:-29-33. Personal evil.   Idolatry.
chronicles of the kings of Israel? 16:34—20:43. Public events.  War with Syria.
21:1-29. Personal evil.   Naboth.
28 So Omri died, and was buried in Samaria:  and Ahab his son
22:1-38. Public events.   War with Syria.
reigned in his stead. 22:39, 40. Conclusion.


29 And in the thirty and eighth year of Asa king of Judah began 29 twenty and two years. For spiritual significance, see note
Ahab the son of Omri to reign over Israel:  and Ahab the son of on 14:20, and Ap. 10.
 30 above all. The reign of Ahab opens a new era in Israel's
Omri reigned over Israel in Samaria twenty and two years.
history.
30 And Ahab the son of Omri did evil in the sight of the LORD
31 Jezebel, daughter of a regicide and fratricide (Josephus c.


above all that were before him. Apion 1. 18, Ant. viii. 3. 1), priest of the Phoenician goddess
31 And it came to pass, as if it had been a light thing for him to Astarte.
walk in the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, that he took to 33 grove. See note on Ex. 34.13, and Ap. 42.
 34 build = to fortify and complete.  It had been partially
wife Jezebel the daughter of Ethbaal king of the Zidonians, and restored (Judg. 3. 13. 2 Sam. 10.5), but now became a fortified
went and served Baal, and worshipped him. city of Israel.
32 And he reared up an altar for Baal in the house of Baal, which in = at the cost of. which He spake.  Cp. Josh. 6. 26.


he had built in Samaria. 17:1—19:21. THE DROUGHT.


33 And Ahab made a grove; and Ahab did more to provoke the 17:1-24. Elijah’s retirement.
LORD God of Israel to anger than all the kings of Israel that were 18:1-46. Mission to Ahab.
19:1-14. Elijah’s flight.
before him.
19:15-21. Mission to Hazael and others.
34 In his days did Hiel the Bethelite fortify and complete Jericho:
1 Elijah. First mention = GOD  (El) is  JAH  (or Jehovah).  See
he laid the foundation thereof at the cost of Abiram his firstborn,
Ap. 4. II.
and set up the gates thereof at the cost of his youngest son Segub, Tishbite = sojourner.  Probably a priest.
 inhabitants = sojourners. before, &c. Probably a priest.  See
according to the word of the LORD, which He spake by Joshua
the son of Nun. note above. dew = night-mist.  Cp. Deut. 32. 2.  2 Sam. 1. 21.
Job 38. 28.
 these years (not three years).  No definite period stated.  “Years”
17 And Elijah the Tishbite, who was of the sojourners of
is pl., not dual.  In Luke 4:25 and Jas. 5:17 = “three years and six
Gilead, said unto Ahab, As the LORD God of Israel liveth, months”.  These six months must be reckoned before the three


before Whom I stand, there shall not be night-mist nor rain years, not added to the end because of “the third year” (18:1):
 i.e. the third full year.
these years, but according to my word.
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17. 2. I KINGS. 17. 20.


2 And the word of the LORD came unto him, saying, 17:1-24. ELIJAH’S RETIREMENT.


3 Get thee hence, and turn thee eastward, and hide thyself by the 1-4. Command.
brook Cherith, that is on the east side of Jordan. 5, 6. Obedience.
O 7. Circumstance.  The brook and ravens.
4 And it shall be, that thou shalt drink of the brook; and I have
8, 9. Command.


commanded the ravens to feed thee there. 10-. Obedience.
5 So he went and did according unto the word of the LORD:  for -10-24. Circumstance.  The widow.


he went and dwelt by the brook Cherith, that is before Jordan. 3 before Jordan: i.e. on the east side.
4 4 I have commanded. Elijah miraculously fed three times : (1)
6 And the ravens brought him bread and flesh in the morning,
by ravens (17. 6);  (2) by a widow (17. 9);  (3) by an angel (19. 5,
and bread and flesh in the evening; and he drank of the brook.
6).
7 And it came to pass after a while, that the brook dried up, ravens. Note "I have commanded".  All things possible when He
because there had been no rain in the land. speaks.  Almighty power is a better and easier explanation than all
8 And the word of the LORD came unto him, saying, rationalistic inventions.
 there. Nowhere else.  Note the special lesson.  Any-where but in
9 Arise, get thee to Zarephath, which belongeth to Zidon, and God's appointed place he would have perished.
* 4
dwell there: behold, I have commanded a widow woman 9 Zarephath = the Sarepta of Luke 4. 26.
there to sustain thee. a widow. One of nine widows mentioned.  See note on v. 4 and
Gen. 38. 19.
10 So he arose and went to Zarephath.  And when he came to
*
the gate of the city, behold, the widow woman was there -10-24. CIRCUMSTANCE.  THE WIDOW.


gathering of sticks:  and he called to her, and said, Fetch me, I -10-16. Maintenance.
pray thee, a little water in a vessel, that I may drink. 17-24. Bereavement.
11 And as she was going to fetch it, he called to her, and said,
-10-16. MAINTENANCE.
Bring me, I pray thee, a morsel of bread in thine hand.
-10, 11. Elijah.   Request.
12 And she said, As the LORD thy God liveth, I have not a cake,
 12. The widow.   Excuse.
but an handful of meal in a barrel, and a little oil in a flask: 13, 14. Elijah.   Promise.
*
and, behold, I am gathering two sticks, that I may go in and 15-. The Widow.   Compliance.
dress it for me and my son, that we may eat it, and die. -15, 16. Elijah.   Promise fulfilled.


13 And Elijah said unto her, Fear not; go and do as thou hast 12 a little oil. From Josh. 19. 24-28 Zidon fell to Asher.  From
said: but make me thereof a little cake first, and bring it unto Deut. 33. 24 Asher had abundance of oil, though water was scarce.
me, and after make for thee and for thy son. Cp. Gen. 49. 20.
cruse = flask.  Cp. Matt. 25. 4.
14 For thus saith the LORD God of Israel, The meal in the
14 barrel of meal. Fig. Hypallage (Ap. 6) = meal in the barrel.
barrel shall not waste, neither shall the flask of oil fail, until the
day that the LORD sendeth rain upon the earth. 17-24. BEREAVEMENT.


15 And she went and did according to the saying of Elijah:  and 17. Son.   Death.
she, and he, and her house, did eat many days. 18. Widow.   Complaint.
19. Son taken.
16 And the barrel of meal wasted not, neither did the flask of oil
20, 21. Prayer made.
fail, according to the word of the LORD, which He spake by 22. Prayer answered.
Elijah. 23-. Son restored.
-23. Son.   Life.
17 And it came to pass after these things, that the son of the
24. Widow.   Acknowledgment.
woman, the mistress of the house, fell sick; and his sickness was
 e
so sore, that there was no breath left in him. 17 breath. Heb. n shamah. Ap. 16.
 18 What have I...? See note on 2 Sam. 16. 10..
18 And she said unto Elijah, What have I to do with thee, O
man of God. See note on Deut. 33. 1, and Ap. 49.
thou man of God?  art thou come unto me to call my sin to sin. Heb. 'avon. Ap. 44. iii.
remembrance, and to slay my son?
19 And he said unto her, Give me thy son. And he took him out
of her bosom, and carried him up into a loft, where he abode,
and laid him upon his own bed.
20 And he cried unto the LORD, and said, O LORD my God,
hast Thou also brought evil upon the widow with whom I
sojourn, by slaying her son?
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17. 21. I KINGS. 18. 16.


21 And he measured himself upon the child three times, and cried 21 stretched = measured.
soul = life.  Cp. v. 23, "liveth".  Heb. nephesh. Ap. 13.
unto the LORD, and said, O LORD my God, I pray Thee, let this
23 liveth. The result of life's being given, making the child
child's life come into him again. "a living soul" (Gen. 2. 7).
22 And the LORD heard the voice of Elijah; and the life of the child
18:1-46. MISSION TO AHAB.
came into him again, and he revived.
23 And Elijah took the child, and brought him down out of the 1-. Command.
-1. Promise of rain.   Given.
chamber into the house, and delivered him unto his mother: and
2-40. Obedience.


Elijah said, See, thy son liveth. 41-46. Promise of rain.   Fulfilled.
24 And the woman said to Elijah, Now by this I know that thou art a
1 the Lord. Heb. Jehovah.  Ap. 4. II.
man of God, and that the word of the LORD in thy mouth is truth.
third year: i.e. the third or last full year toward the end of
18 And it came to pass after many days, that the word of the the three and a half years.


 2-40. OBEDIENCE.
LORD came to Elijah in the third year, saying, Go, shew thyself
unto Ahab; and I will send rain upon the earth. 2-6. Ahab and Obadiah.
7, 8-. Elijah.
2 And Elijah went to shew himself unto Ahab.  And there was a sore
 -8-16-. Ahab.   Elijah’s message.
famine in Samaria. -16, 17. Ahab and Elijah.
3 And Ahab called Obadiah, which was the governor over his house. 18. Elijah.
(Now Obadiah feared the LORD greatly: 19-40. Ahab.   Elijah.   Elijah’s proposal.


 2 famine. One of the thirteen famines mentioned in
4 For it was so, when Jezebel cut off the prophets of the LORD, that
Obadiah took an hundred prophets, and hid them by fifty men, and Scripture.  See note on Gen. 12. 10.
3 governor of = governor over.  Now.  Fig. Parenthesis.
fed them with bread and water.) Ap. 6.
5 And Ahab said unto Obadiah, Go and let us pass through the land, 4 Jezebel. The first record of using the civil power against
unto all fountains of water, and unto all brooks:  peradventure we the true religion (and by a woman). See note on Judg. 4. 21.
fifty in a cave = fifty men.
may find grass to save the horses and mules alive, that we lose not all
5 Go into = Sept. and Syr. read "Go and let us pass
the beasts. through".


6 So they divided the land between them to pass throughout it:  Ahab
9-14. AHAB.  ELIJAH’S MESSAGE.
went one way by himself, and Obadiah went another way by himself.
-8. Command to Obadiah.
7 And as Obadiah was in the way, behold, Elijah met him:  and he 9-14. Expostulation of Obadiah.
knew him, and fell on his face, and said, Art thou that my lord Elijah? 15. Assurance of Elijah.
8 And he answered him, I am:  go, tell thy lord, Behold, Elijah is 16-. Obedience of Obadiah.


here.
* 9-14....EXPOSTULATION OF OBADIAH.
9 And he said, What have I sinned, that thou art giving thy servant
9. Danger of Obadiah.
into the hand of Ahab, to slay me? 10. Ahab’s search for Elijah (past).
10 As the LORD thy God liveth, there is no nation or kingdom, 11. Command.  Of Elijah.
whither my lord hath not sent to seek thee:  and when they said, He is 12, 13. Ahab’s search for Elijah (future).
14-. Command.  Of Elijah.
not there; he took an oath of the kingdom and nation, that they found
-14. Danger of Obadiah.
thee not.
11 And now thou sayest, Go, tell thy lord, Behold, Elijah is here. 9 What...? Fig. Erotesis. Ap. 6.
12 And it shall come to pass, as soon as I am gone from thee, that the wouldest deliver = art giving.
 10 God. Heb. Elohim.  Ap.4. I.
Spirit of the LORD shall carry thee whither I know not; and so
12 Spirit. Heb. ruach. Ap. 9.
when I come and tell Ahab, and he cannot find thee, he shall slay me: 13 men. Heb. 'ish. Ap. 14. II.
but I thy servant fear the LORD from my youth. 15 before, &c. See note on 17. 1.
13 Was it not told my lord what I did when Jezebel slew the prophets
of the LORD, how I hid an hundred men of the LORD's prophets by
fifty men, and fed them with bread and water?
14 And now thou sayest, Go, tell thy lord, Behold, Elijah is here:
and he shall slay me.


15 And Elijah said, As the LORD of hosts liveth, before Whom I
stand, I will surely shew myself unto him to day.
16 So Obadiah went to meet Ahab, and told him:  and Ahab went to
meet Elijah.
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18. 17. I KINGS. 18. 34.


17 And it came to pass, when Ahab saw Elijah, that Ahab said unto 17 troubleth. Cp. Josh.  7.25 with 6.18, and 1 Chron. 2.7,
 Israel. Put by Fig. Metonymy (of Cause), Ap. 6, for
him, Art thou he that troubleth Israelitish People ?
17 Israelitish people.
18 And he answered, I have not troubled Israel; but thou, and thy
18:19-40.......AHAB.   ELIJAH’S PROPOSAL.
father's house, in that ye have forsaken the commandments of the
19, 20. Baal’s prophets.   Assembled.
LORD, and thou hast followed Baalim. 21-38. Conflict with prophets.
19 Now therefore send, and gather to me all Israel unto mount 39. Confession of the People.
 40. Baal’s prophets.   Slain.
Carmel, and the prophets of Baal four hundred and fifty, and the
19 Carmel. Eighteen miles from Jezreel;  sixteen miles
prophets of the Asherah four hundred, which eat at Jezebel's table.
from the sea.  The Kishon below, but now dry. At the foot a
20 So Ahab sent unto all the sons of Israel, and gathered the perennial spring, with a roofed reservoir, eight feet deep.
prophets together unto mount Carmel. Carmel is still called "Mar-Elias".
* groves = the' Asherah. See note on Ex. 34. 13.
21 And Elijah came unto all the people, and said, How long leap ye
20 children = sons.
between two opinions?  if the LORD be God, follow Him:  but if
21-38....CONFLICT WITH THE  PROPHETS.
Baal, then follow him.  And the People answered him not a word.
 * 21-24. The People.   Elijah’s appeal.
22 Then said Elijah unto the People, I, even I only, remain a 25-29. Bullock of the prophets.
prophet of the LORD; but Baal's prophets are four hundred and fifty 30-. The People.   Elijah’s call.
-30-38. Bullock of Elijah.
men.
23 Let them therefore give us two bullocks; and let them choose one 21 How long...? Fig. Erotesis. Ap. 6.
halt = leap.  Cp. v. 26.
bullock for themselves, and cut it in pieces, and lay it on wood, and
22 the People. Some codices read "all the people".
put no fire under:  and I will dress the other bullock, and lay it on 24 gods = god, as in v. 25.  So R.V.
wood, and put no fire under: by fire. This was Jehovah's way of showing His acceptance
of the offering.   See note on Gen. 4. 4.
24 And call ye on the name of your god, and I will call on the name
 25-29....BULLOCK OF THE PROPHETS.
of the LORD:  and the God That answereth by fire, let him be God.
And all the people answered and said, It is well spoken. 25. Elijah.
26. The prophets of Baal.
25 And Elijah said unto the prophets of Baal, Choose you one 27. Elijah.
bullock for yourselves, and dress it first; for ye are many; and call 28, 29. The prophets of Baal.


on the name of your god, but put no fire under. 26 leaped upon = leaped over.  Cp. v. 21.
was made = had been made.
26 And they took the bullock which was given them, and they
27 Cry aloud, &c. Fig. Eironeia. Ap. 6.
dressed it, and called on the name of Baal from morning even until pursuing. Occurs only here.
noon, saying, O Baal, hear us.  But there was no voice, nor any that 28 lancets = lances.  Done by Dervishes to the present day.
answered.  And they leaped over the altar which had been made. 29 evening sacrifice. The usual meal offering.  There was
also a morning meal offering as well (Num. 28. 8).  Cp.
27 And it came to pass at noon, that Elijah mocked them, and said,
* 2 Kings 16.15.


Cry aloud:  for he is a god; either he is talking, or he is pursuing,
-30-38. THE BULLOCK OF ELIJAH.
or he is in a journey, or peradventure he sleepeth, and must be
-30-32. Altar.   Its repairing.
awaked. -32. The trench.
28 And they cried aloud, and cut themselves after their manner with 33-. Altar.   Arrangement of wood.
-33-35. The water.
knives and lances, till the blood gushed out upon them. 36, 37. Altar.   Time for offering.   Prayer..
29 And it came to pass, when midday was past, and they prophesied 38. The fire.


 30 repaired. Carmel had been a local altar for lay
until the time of the offering of the evening sacrifice, that there was
(individual) offerings, but had been broken down.
neither voice, nor any to answer, nor any that regarded.
Cp. 19.10.  These lay altars had no horns.
30 And Elijah said unto all the People, Come near unto me.  And all broken down: i.e.  purposely.


the People came near unto him.  And he repaired the altar of the 31 Jacob. Some codices, with one early printed edition, and
LORD that was [purposely] broken down. Sept., read "Israel", in harmony with v. 36.
Israel. See note on Gen. 32. 28.
31 And Elijah took twelve stones, according to the number of the
33 water. See note on v. 19.
tribes of the sons of Israel, unto whom the word of the LORD came, the wood. Sept. adds "and they did so".


saying, Israel shall be thy name:
32 And with the stones he built an altar in the name of the LORD:
and he made a trench about the altar, as great as would contain two
water, and pour it on the burnt sacrifice, and
measures of seed. on the wood [and they did so].
33 And he put the wood in order, and cut the bullock in pieces, and 34 And he said, Do it the second time.  And
laid him on the wood, and said, Fill four barrels with they did it the second time.  And he said, Do it
the third time.  And they did it the third time.
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18. 35. I KINGS. 19. 6.


35 And the water ran round about the altar; and he filled the trench 36 Israel, not Jacob.  See note on Gen. 32. 28.
38 Then the fire of the LORD fell. Aram, and Sept. read
also with water.
"Then fire from Jehovah fell".  See note on Gen. 4. 4.  "Fire of
36 And it came to pass at the time of the offering of the evening Jehovah" occurs only here and Num.11. 1, 3.
sacrifice, that Elijah the prophet came near, and said, LORD God burnt sacrifice. See Ap. 43. II. ii.
 40 Take = seize, lay hold of.
of Abraham, Isaac, and of Israel, let it be known this day that
one = a man.  Heb. 'Ish. Ap. 14. II.
Thou art God in Israel, and that I am Thy servant, and that I have
Kishon. Cp. Judg. 4.13; 5. 21.
done all these things at Thy word. slew. Heb. idiom, caused them to be slain.


37 Hear me, O LORD, hear me, that this People may know that 18:41-46....PROMISE OF RAIN.   FULFILLED.


Thou art the LORD God, and that Thou hast turned their heart 41-. Command.   To Ahab.
back again. -41. Reason.
 42-. Obedience of Ahab.
38 Then fire from Jehovah fell, and consumed the burnt
-42. Elijah.   Ascent of Carmel.
sacrifice, and the wood, and the stones, and the dust, and licked up
43, 44-. Rain.   Expectation of.
the water that was in the trench. -44. Reason.
39 And when all the People saw it, they fell on their faces:  and 45-. Rain.   Fall of.
-45. Obedience of Ahab.
they said, The LORD, He is the God; the LORD, He is the God.
46. Elijah.   Run to Jezreel.
40 And Elijah said unto them, Seize the prophets of Baal; let not a
42 cast himself down. A rare word.  Only here and 2Kings 4.
man of them escape.  And they took them:  and Elijah brought 34, 35. = Kneeling, and then placing forehead on the ground.


them down to the brook Kishon, and caused them to be slain 43 servant = young man.
there. 45 wind. Heb. ruach. Ap. 9.
46 hand. Put by Fig. Metonymy (of Cause), Ap. 6, for power
41 And Elijah said unto Ahab, Get thee up, eat and drink; for there
put forth.
is a sound of abundance of rain. girded. Girdles worn by all.  Taken off when resting. Put on
42 So Ahab went up to eat and to drink.  And Elijah went up to the when preparing for work or journeying.  See Ex. 12. 11.  2
top of Carmel; and he kneeled, and then placed his forehead on Kings 4.29; 9. 1.  Luke 12. 37; 17. 8.  Acts 12. 8.
ran. For over twenty miles Elijah acted as the royal "runner"
the ground.
across the great plain of Esdraelon.  Possibly none at hand in
43 And said to his young man, Go up now, look toward the sea. the king's hasty departure.


And he went up, and looked, and said, There is nothing.  And he 19:1-14........ELIJAH’S FLIGHT.


said, Go again seven times. 1, 2. Jezebel’s threat.
*
44 And it came to pass at the seventh time, that he said, Behold, 3, 4. Elijah.   To the desert.
there ariseth a little cloud out of the sea, like a man's hand.  And he 5-7. Coming of angel.
8, 9-. Elijah.   To Horeb.
said, Go up, say unto Ahab, Prepare thy chariot, and get thee
-9. Coming of word of Jehovah.
down, that the rain stop thee not. 10. Jezebel’s threat.
45 And it came to pass in the mean while, that the heaven was 11-. Elijah.   Command.
 -11, 12. Jehovah.   Manifestations.
black with clouds and wind, and there was a great rain.  And
13-. Elijah.   Awe.
Ahab rode, and went to Jezreel. -13. Jehovah.   Inquiry.


46 And the power of the LORD was on Elijah; and he girded up 14. Jezebel’s threat.


his loins, and ran before Ahab to the entrance of Jezreel. 1 how he had slain : or, all about how he had slain. all. Some
codices, with Sept., omit this word "all".
19 And Ahab told Jezebel all that Elijah had done, and withal, 2 to me. These words in italics are read in some codices, with
all about he had slain all the prophets with the sword. Sept., Syr., and Vulg.  Cp. 20. 10.
3 he arose. Some codices, with Aram. MS., Sept., Syr., and
2 Then Jezebel sent a messenger unto Elijah, saying, So let the
 Vulg., read "And he feared and arose".
gods do to me, and more also, if I make not thy life as the life of servant = young man.
one of them by to morrow about this time. 4 himself = his soul.   Heb. nephesh. Ap. 13.
 6 cake...cruse. Elijah miraculously fed three times.   See
3 And when he saw that, he arose, and went for his life, and came
notes on 17. 4, 6.
to Beer-sheba, which belongeth to Judah, and left his young man
there.
4 But he himself went a day's journey into the wilderness, and
came and sat down under a juniper tree:  and he requested for


His soul that he might die; and said, It is enough; now, O LORD, 6 And he looked, and, behold, there was a cake
take away my life; for I am not better than my fathers. baken on the coals, and a cruse of water at his
5 And as he lay and slept under a juniper tree, behold, then an head.  And he did eat and drink, and laid him
Angel touched him, and said unto him, Arise and eat. down again.
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19. 7. I KINGS. 19. 21.


7 And the Angel of the LORD came again the second time, and 8 forty. The number of Probation.  See Ap. 10.
Horeb. About 180 miles.
touched him, and said, Arise and eat; because the journey is too great
9 lodged = passed the night.
for thee. What...? Fig. Anthropopatheia (Ap. 6), as though He did
8 And he arose, and did eat and drink, and went in the strength of that not know.
 10 the LORD God of hosts. First occurrence of this
meat forty days and forty nights unto Horeb the mount of God. e
title. See Ap. 4 = Jehovah Elohim z b'aoth. It occurs in 2
9 And he came thither unto a cave, and passed the night there; and,
Sam. 5. 10, but in narrative, not address. "The LORD
behold, the word of the LORD came to him, and He said unto him, (Jehovah) God (Elohim) of hosts" occurs only here in
* Kings and Chronicles.  Often in Psalms (59. 6; 69. 6; 80.
What doest thou here, Elijah?
 4,19; 84. 8; 89. 8).  In Isa. 10. 23, 24; 22. 5, 12, 14, 15;
10 And he said, I have been very jealous for the LORD God of hosts:
 28.22.  Jer. 2. 19; 5. 14; 15.16; 35.17; 49.5; 50.25,31.
for the sons of Israel have forsaken Thy covenant, THROWN DOWN Hos. 12. 5.  Amos 5. 15. After the return from captivity
 *
THINE ALTARS, AND SLAIN THY PROPHETS WITH THE SWORD; AND I, "LORD of hosts" occurs fourteen times in Haggai;  about
EVEN I ONLY, AM LEFT; AND THEY SEEK MY LIFE, TO TAKE IT AWAY. fifty in Zechariah; and twenty-five in Malachi.  But
"LORD God of hosts" is not found in those books.
11 And He said, Go forth [tomorrow ], and stand upon the mount
children = sons. thrown, &c. Quoted in Rom. 11:2, 3.
before the LORD.  And, behold, the LORD passed by, and a great and altars. There were lay altars (local) for customary
strong wind rent the mountains, and brake in pieces the rocks before individual offerings by laymen, as well as at Jerusalem.
the LORD; but the LORD was not in the wind:  and after the wind an These had no horns.
I...I. Fig. Epizeuxis. Ap. 6.
earthquake; but the LORD was not in the earthquake: 11 Go forth. Sept. adds "to-morrow".
12 And after the earthquake a fire; but the LORD was not in the fire: wind. Heb. ruach.  Ap. 9.
and after the fire the sound of stillness. 12 a still small voice = the sound of stillness. Cp. Job 4.
 16. Sept. = a gentle breeze, usually misquoted "the still",
13 And it was so, when Elijah heard it, that he wrapped his face in his
&c.
mantle, and went out, and stood in the entering in of the cave.  And, 13 wrapped: as Moses at the bush (Ex. 3. 6).
behold, there came a voice unto him, and said [unto him], What doest said. Some codices, with Syr., add "unto him". Cp.v.9.
thou here, Elijah?
19:15-21..MISSION TO HAZAEL AND OTHERS.
14 And he said, I have been very jealous for the LORD God of hosts:
15-. Return of Elijah.   Command.
because the sons of Israel have forsaken Thy covenant, thrown down -15, 16. Anointings.   Command.
10
Thine altars, and slain Thy prophets with the sword; and I, even I 17. Prophecy.
only, am left; and they seek my life, to take it away. 18. History.
 19-. Return of Elijah.   Effected.
15 And the LORD said unto him, Go, return to thy way to the
-19-12. Anointings.   Effected.
wilderness of Damascus:  and when thou comest, cause to be anointed
Hazael to be king over Syria: 15 on thy way = to thy way:  i.e. out of which he had
deviated.
16 And Jehu the grandson of Nimshi shalt thou anoint to be king over
 anoint: i.e. cause to be anointed.  Cp. 2 Kings 9:1-7.
Israel:  and Elisha the son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah shalt thou 16 son of Nimshi. Son put by Fig. Metonymy (of
anoint to be prophet in thy room. Subject), Ap. 6, for grandson or descendant (2 Kings 9.
 2).
17 And it shall come to pass, that him that escapeth the sword of
Elisha = El = my GOD [is] salvation.
Hazael shall Jehu slay:  and him that escapeth from the sword of Jehu
17 the sword. Put by Fig. Metonymy (of Cause), Ap. 6,
shall Elisha declare should be slain. for judgments inflicted by it.  Cp. 2 Kings 9 and 10.  The
 first prophecy given to Elijah.
18 Yet I HAVE LEFT ME SEVEN THOUSAND IN ISRAEL, ALL THE KNEES
 Elisha slay : i. e. declare should be slain.  Heb. idiom.
WHICH HAVE NOT BOWED UNTO BAAL, and every mouth which hath
See Jer. 1.10.  Hos. 6. 5.
not kissed to him. 18 I have left, &c. Rom. 11. 4.
19 So he departed thence, and found Elisha the son of Shaphat, who bowed. Put by Fig. Metonymy (of Adjunct),
 kissed.          for worshipping.  Cp. Hos. 3. 12.
was plowing with twelve yoke of oxen before him, and he with the
 kissed him. Heb. kissed to him.  Cp. Job 31. 26, 27.
twelfth:  and Elijah passed by him, and cast his mantle upon him.
19 twelve: seven separate ploughs following each other.
20 And he left the oxen, and ran after Elijah, and said, Let me, I pray Often seen to-day.
thee, kiss my father and my mother, and then I will follow thee.  And mantle. Cp. Zech. 13. 4.
he said unto him, Go back again:  for what is the meaning of what I 20 what have I done...? Fig. Erotesis (Ap. 6), or "what
is the meaning of what I did ?"
did ?
21 instruments = implements.  Cp. 2 Sam. 24. 22.
21 And he returned back from him, and took a yoke of oxen, and slew
them, and boiled their flesh with the implements of the oxen, and gave
unto the people, and they did eat.  Then he arose, and went after Elijah,
and ministered unto him.
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20. 1. I KINGS. 20. 22.


20:1-43........WARS WITH SYRIA.


20 And Ben-hadad the king of Syria gathered all his force
1. Syria.   First invasion.


together: and there were thirty and two kings with him, and horses, 2-11. Israel.   Negotiations.
and chariots:  and he went up and besieged Samaria, and warred 12. Syria.   Siege of Samaria.
13-21. Israel.   Sortie by Ahab.
against it.
22-26. Syria.   Second invasion.
2 And he sent messengers to Ahab king of Israel into the city, and 27. Israel.   Numbering of.
they said unto him, Thus saith Ben-hadad, 28-30. Syria.   Defeat.
3 Thy silver and thy gold is mine; thy wives also and thy sons, even 31-33-. Israel.   Ahab’s forbearance.
-33, 34. Syria.   Covenant with Ahab.
the goodliest, are mine.
35-43. Israel.   God reproves Ahab.
4 And the king of Israel answered and said, My lord, O king,
1 Ben-hadad. Perhaps the son of the Ben-hadad of 15:18.
according to thy saying, I am thine, and all that I have. host = force.
5 And the messengers came again, and said, Thus speaketh Ben- thirty and two. Probably vassal princes.  Cp. v. 24.


hadad, saying, Although I have sent unto thee, saying, Thou shalt 2-11..........NEGOTIATIONS.


deliver me thy silver, and thy gold, and thy wives, and thy sons; 2, 3. Ben-hadad.   First demand.
6 Yet I will send my servants unto thee to morrow about this time, 4. Ahab.   Compliance.
5, 6. Ben-hadad.   Second demand.
and they shall ransack thine house, and the houses of thy servants;
7-9. Ahab.   Refusal.
and it shall be, that whatsoever is pleasant in thine eyes, they shall 10. Ben-hadad.   Threatening.
put it in their hand, and take it away. 11. Ahab.   Retort.


7 Then the king of Israel called all the elders of the land, and said, 2 said. A special various reading (Sevir, Ap. 34) reads "they
Mark, I pray you, and see how this man seeketh mischief:  for he said".
3 children = sons.
sent unto me for my wives, and for my sons, and for my silver, and
6 search : as from the top : i.e. ransack.
for my gold; and I denied him not. 11 Let not him. Fig. Paroemia.  Ap. 6.
8 And all the elders and all the People said unto him, Hearken not 12 message = word.  Put by Fig. Metonymy (of Adjunct),
unto him, nor consent. Ap. 6, for the message contained.
pavilions = tents.
9 Wherefore he said unto the messengers of Ben-hadad, Tell my lord 13 behold. Fig. Asterismos.  Ap. 6.
the king, All that thou didst send for to thy servant at the first I will Hast...? Fig. Erotesis. Ap. 6.
do: but this thing I may not do.  And the messengers departed, and 14 young men = the servants, or esquires.
22 return of the year: the spring.  Cp. 2 Sam. 11:1.
brought him word again.
10 And Ben-hadad sent unto him, and said, The gods do so unto
me, and more also, if the dust of Samaria shall suffice for handfuls 17 And the young men of the princes of the
for all the people that follow me. provinces went out first; and Ben-hadad sent
*
11 And the king of Israel answered and said, Tell him, Let not him out, and they told him, saying, There are men
that girdeth on his harness boast himself as he that putteth it off. come out of Samaria.


12 And it came to pass, when Ben-hadad heard this message, as he 18 And he said, Whether they be come out for
was drinking, he and the kings in the tents, that he said unto his peace, take them alive; or whether they be come
servants, Set yourselves in array.  And they set themselves in array out for war, take them alive.
against the city. 19 So these young men of the princes of the
13 And, behold, there came a prophet unto Ahab king of Israel, provinces came out of the city, and the army
*
saying, Thus saith the LORD, Hast thou seen all this great which followed them.
multitude?  behold, I will deliver it in to thine hand this day; and 20 And they slew every one his man:  and the
thou shalt know that I am the LORD. Syrians fled; and Israel pursued them:  and Ben-
14 And Ahab said, By whom? And he said, Thus saith the LORD, hadad the king of Syria escaped on an horse
Even by the servants of the princes of the provinces.  Then he said, with the horsemen.
Who shall order the battle? And he answered, Thou. 21 And the king of Israel went out, and smote
15 Then he numbered the young men of the princes of the the horses and chariots, and slew the Syrians
provinces, and they were two hundred and thirty two:  and after with a great slaughter.
them he numbered all the People, even all the sons of Israel, being 22 And the prophet came to the king of Israel,
seven thousand. and said unto him, Go, strengthen thy self, and
16 And they went out at noon.  But Ben-hadad was drinking mark, and see what thou doest:  for at the spring
himself drunk in the tents, he and the kings, the thirty and two kings of the year the king of Syria will come up
that helped him. against thee.
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20. 23. I KINGS. 20. 43.


23 And the servants of the king of Syria said unto him, Their gods 24 captains = governors, or pashas.
26 Aphek. Probably east of the Sea of Galilee.
are gods of the hills; therefore they were stronger than we; but let us
27 were numbered = enrolled themselves.
fight against them in the plain, and surely we shall be stronger than flocks = newborn kids.  Heb. hasaph. Occurs only here.
they. 28 man of God = a prophet.  See Ap. 49.
24 And do this thing, Take the kings away, every man out of his ye shall know. Sept. reads "so shalt thou know". Cp. v. 13
above.
place, and put governors in their rooms:
32 me = my soul.  Heb. nephesh. Ap. 13.
25 And number thee an army, like the army that thou hast lost, horse brother: i.e. a brother-king.
for horse, and chariot for chariot:  and we will fight against them in 33 did diligently observe. Heb. divined and hasted. Fig.
Hendiadys (Ap. 6) = quickly divined.
the plain, and surely we shall be stronger than they.  And he
any thing would come. These italics are wrongly supplied,
hearkened unto their voice, and did so. not knowing the two readings of E. and W. recensions,
26 And it came to pass at the spring of the year, that Ben-hadad caused by a different division of words.  The E. recension
 reads "and they pressed [to find out] whether it was from him
numbered the Syrians, and went up to Aphek, to fight against
and said".  The W. recension reads" and they pressed it out
Israel.
from him, and they said" : i.e. they wanted to know whether
27 And the sons of Israel enrolled themselves, and were all present, he confirmed the word of his own accord.
and went against them:  and the sons of Israel pitched before them 34 streets = broad ways, or bazaars. as = according as.
like two little newborn kids; but the Syrians filled the country. said. Fig. Ellipsis (Ap. 6) to be supplied by repetition from
previous clause.
28 And there came a prophet, and spake unto the king of Israel, and
35-43.....ISRAEL.   GOD REPROVES AHAB.
said, Thus saith the LORD, Because the Syrians have said, The
35 man. Heb. ish.  Josephus identifies him with Micaiah
LORD is God of the hills, but He is not God of the valleys,
(22:8).
therefore will I deliver all this great multitude into thine hand, and 38 ashes, &c. = bandage.
so shalt thou know that I am the LORD.
29 And they pitched one over against the other seven days.
And so it was, that in the seventh day the battle was joined: obeyed the voice of the LORD, behold, as soon as
and the sons of Israel slew of the Syrians an hundred thousand thou art departed from me, a lion shall slay thee.
footmen in one day. And as soon as he was departed from him, a lion
30 But the rest fled to Aphek, into the city; and there a wall fell found him, and slew him.
upon twenty and seven thousand of the men that were left. And 37 Then he found another man, and said, Smite me, I
Ben-hadad fled, and came into the city, into an inner chamber. pray thee.  And the man smote him, so that in
31 And his servants said unto him, Behold now, we have heard smiting he wounded him.
38 So the prophet departed, and waited for the king
that the kings of the house of Israel are merciful kings:  let us, I
by the way, and disguised himself with bandages
pray thee, put sackcloth on our loins, and ropes upon our heads,
upon his face.
and go out to the king of Israel:  peradventure he will save thy
39 And as the king passed by, he cried unto the king:
life.
and he said, Thy servant went out into the midst of
32 So they girded sackcloth on their loins, and put ropes on their
the battle; and, behold, a man turned aside, and
heads, and came to the king of Israel, and said, Thy servant Ben-
brought a man unto me, and said, Keep this man:  if
hadad saith, I pray thee, let my soul live.  And he said, Is he yet
by any means he be missing, then shall thy life be
alive?  he is my brother-king.
for his life, or else thou shalt pay a talent of silver.


33 Now the men quickly divined whether any thing would come 40 And as thy servant was busy here and there, he
from him, and did hastily catch it:  and they said, Thy brother was gone.  And the king of Israel said unto him, So
Ben-hadad.  Then he said, Go ye, bring him. Then Ben-hadad shall thy judgment be; thyself hast decided it.
came forth to him; and he caused him to come up into the chariot. 41 And he hasted, and took the bandages away from
34 And Ben-hadad said unto him, The cities, which my father his face; and the king of Israel discerned him that he
took from thy father, I will restore; and thou shalt make was of the prophets.
broadways for thee in Damascus, according my father made in 42 And he said unto him, Thus saith the LORD,
Samaria.  Then said Ahab, I will send thee away with this Because thou hast let go out of thy hand a man
covenant. So he made a covenant with him, and sent him away. whom I appointed to utter destruction, therefore thy
35 And a certain man of the sons of the prophets said unto his life shall go for his life, and thy people for his
neighbour in the word of the LORD, Smite me, I pray thee. And people.
the man refused to smite him. 43 And the king of Israel went to his house heavy
36 Then said he unto him, Because thou hast not and displeased, and came to Samaria.
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21. 1. I KINGS. 21. 19.


21:1-29...PERSONAL EVIL.  NABOTH.
21 And it came to pass after these things, that Naboth the
1-16. Evil committed.
Jezreelite had a vineyard [that came to be his by inheritance], which 17-29. Evil to be judged.


was in Jezreel, hard by the palace of Ahab king of Samaria. 1-16. .........EVIL COMMITTED.


2 And Ahab spake unto Naboth, saying, Give me thy vineyard, that I 1-3. Ahab’s covetousness.   Fact.
may have it for a garden of herbs, because it is near unto my house: 4. Ahab’s heaviness.
and I will give thee for it a better vineyard than it; or, if it seem good 5. Jezebel’s inquiry.
6. Ahab’s covetousness.   Recital.
to thee, I will give thee the worth of it in money.
7-15. Jezebel’s promise.
3 And Naboth said to Ahab, The LORD forbid it me, that I should 16 Ahab’s gratification.


give the inheritance of my fathers unto thee. 1 had a vineyard = a vineyard came to be his (by
4 And Ahab came into his house heavy and displeased because of the inheritance).
word which Naboth the Jezreelite had spoken to him:  for he had said, Jezreel. In the plain of Esdraelon.
2 Give me. Cp. l Sam. 8. 14, of which this is a fulfilment.
I will not give thee the inheritance of my fathers.  And he laid him 3 the inheritance of my fathers. Naboth respected the
down upon his bed, and turned away his face, and would eat no bread. Law of God (Lev. 25. 23.  Num. 36. 7, 8).
5 But Jezebel his wife came to him, and said unto him, Why is thy 7 Dost...? Fig. Erotesis. Ap. 6.
8 sealed...with his seal. Fig. Polyptoton. Ap. 6,
spirit so sad, that thou eatest no bread?
Sealing was done by rubbing ink on the seal, moistening
6 And he said unto her, Because I spake unto Naboth the Jezreelite, the paper, and pressing the seal thereon.
and said unto him, Give me thy vineyard for money; or else, if it 9 on high : i.e. in a conspicuous place ; or, perhaps,
please thee, I will give thee another vineyard for it:  and he answered, before the bar of justice.
10 two. Cp. Deut. 17. 6. sons of Belial. Cp.  Deut. 13.
I will not give thee my vineyard.
* 13.  l  Sam. 1.16; 2. 12, &c.
7 And Jezebel his wife said unto him, Dost thou now govern the blaspheme. The current Heb. text reads "bless".  In spite
kingdom of Israel? arise, and eat bread, and let thine heart be merry: of this the A.V. and B. V. render it "blaspheme". It is one
of the emendations of the Sopherim (Ap. 18), and is
I will give thee the vineyard of Naboth the Jezreelite.
 correctly rendered "blaspheme", but should have had a
8 So she wrote letters in Ahab's name, and sealed them with his seal, marginal note of explanation.
and sent the letters unto the elders and to the nobles that were in his 11 as = according as.
city, dwelling with Naboth. 13 stoned him. One of the nine cases of stoning. See note
on Lev. 24.14.
9 And she wrote in the letters, saying, Proclaim a fast, and set Naboth
15 Arise. This form of the imperative is only found in


on high among the People: connection with Jehovah, and always with reference to the
 promised land.  And the lengthened form is found only in
10 And set two men, sons of Belial, before him, to bear witness
 Moses' mouth in Num. 10. 35.
against him, saying, Thou didst blaspheme God and the king.  And
then carry him out, and stone him, that he may die. 17-29. .......EVIL TO BE JUDGED.
.
11 And the men of his city, even the elders and the nobles who were 17-19-. Call to Elijah to go to Ahab.
-19. Judgment pronounced.
the inhabitants in his city, did according as Jezebel had sent unto
20. Altercation.
them, and as it was written in the letters which she had sent unto 21, 22. Judgment.   Particular.
them. 23. Jezebel.
9 24. Judgment.   Particular.
12 They proclaimed a fast, and set Naboth on high among the
25, 26. Provocation.
People. 27-29-. Call to Elijah to see Ahab humbled.
13 And there came in two men, sons of Belial, and sat before him: -29. Judgment mitigated.


and the men of Belial witnessed against him, even against Naboth, in 19 Hast thou...? Fig. Erotesis. killed = murdered.
10
the presence of the People, saying, Naboth did blaspheme God and


the king.  Then they carried him forth out of the city, and stoned
him with stones, that he died. 18 Arise, go down to meet Ahab king of Israel,
14 Then they sent to Jezebel, saying, Naboth is stoned, and is dead. which is in Samaria:  behold, he is in the
15 And it came to pass, when Jezebel heard that Naboth was stoned, vineyard of Naboth, whither he is gone down to


and was dead, that Jezebel said to Ahab, Arise, take possession of possess it.
the vineyard of Naboth the Jezreelite, which he refused to give thee 19 And thou shalt speak unto him, saying, Thus
*
for money:  for Naboth is not alive, but dead. saith the LORD, Hast thou murdered, and also
16 And it came to pass, when Ahab heard that Naboth was dead, taken possession? And thou shalt speak unto
that Ahab rose up to go down to the vineyard of Naboth the him, saying, Thus saith the LORD, In the place
Jezreelite, to take possession of it. where dogs licked the blood of Naboth shall
17 And the word of the LORD came to Elijah the Tishbite, saying, dogs lick thy blood, even thine.
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21. 20. I KINGS. 22. 7.


20 And Ahab said to Elijah, Hast thou found me, O mine enemy? 20 evil = the evil.  Heb. ra'a'.  Ap. 44. viii.
21 him that, &c. =every male.  Cp. 14. 10.
And he answered, I have found thee:  because thou hast sold
shut up and left. See note on 14. 10.
thyself to work the evil in the sight of the LORD. 22 Jeroboam. Cp. 16. 3.
21 Behold, I will bring evil upon thee, and will take away thy made Israel to sin. See note on 12. 30.
e
posterity, and will cut off from Ahab every male, and him that is 23 by the wall. The word b hel is thought by Ginsburg to be an
t
 abbreviation for b helek= "in the portion of", as in 2 Kings 9.10,
shut up and left in Israel,
36: i. e. within the rampart.


22 And will make thine house like the house of Jeroboam the Jezreel. Not Samaria the capital, but Jezreel where Naboth had
son of Nebat, and like the house of Baasha the son of Ahijah, for been murdered.
25 The Structure (p. 485) places the member, vv. 25, 26, as
the provocation wherewith thou hast provoked Me to anger, and
 within a parenthesis.
made Israel to sin. none like unto Ahab. Out of twenty bad kings Ahab was the
23 And of Jezebel also spake the LORD, saying, The dogs shall worst.  Cp. 16. 30, 33.
 26 idols = filthy idols.  Cp. Lev. 26. 30.
eat Jezebel by the wall of Jezreel.
27 rent his clothes. His repentance was outward, not real.
24 Him that dieth of Ahab in the city the dogs shall eat; and him
went softly: i.e. humbly.
that dieth in the field shall the fowls of the air eat. 29 not bring. So the judgment on Solomon was postponed
 (11.12) for his father's sake.
25 (But there was none like unto Ahab, which did sell himself to


work wickedness in the sight of the LORD, whom Jezebel his 22:1-38...PUBLIC EVENTS.  WAR WITH SYRIA.


wife stirred up. 1, 2. Ahab.   Visited by Jehoshaphat.
26 And he did very abominably in following filthy idols, 3, 4. Ramoth-gilead.   Plan of Ahab.
5-28. Jehoshaphat’s uneasiness.
according to all things as did the Amorites, whom the LORD cast
29. Ramoth.   Battle fought.
out before the sons of Israel.) 30. Ahab’s expedient.
27 And it came to pass, when Ahab heard those words, that he 31. Ramoth-gilead.   Plan of king of Syria
 32. Jehoshaphat’s danger.
rent his clothes, and put sackcloth upon his flesh, and fasted,
33-36. Ramoth-gilead.   Battle won.
and lay in sackcloth, and went humbly. 37, 38 Ahab’s death.


28 And the word of the LORD came to Elijah the Tishbite,
1 three years. Probably reckoned from the peace of 20. 34.
saying, During this time Jehoshaphat "strengthened himself against
* Israel" (2 Chron. 17. l):  not mentioned here because esoteric.
29 Seest thou how Ahab humbleth himself before me?  because
 See note on title of l Kings.
he humbleth himself before Me, I will not bring the evil in his
2 came down. In every sense of the word ; and this after 2
days: but in his son's days will I bring the evil upon his house. Chron. 17. l.  First was the matrimonial alliance (2Chron. 18. l),
 cp. 2 Kings 8. 18;  and then the military alliance (v. 4 and 2
22 And they continued three years without war between
Chron. 18. 3).  No mention here of the former, which was the
Syria and Israel. secret cause that led up to it.  Both fatal.  Compare the
2 And it came to pass in the third year, that Jehoshaphat the king commercial alliance of Jehoshaphat in 2 Chron. 20. 35-37, and
 the experience gained by Jehoshaphat in ch. 22. 48, 49.
of Judah came down to the king of Israel.
3 And the king of Israel. Note the Fig. Anadiplosis (Ap. 6)


3 And the king of Israel said unto his servants, Know ye that with v. 2. Ramoth. One of the Cities of Refuge.
 ours. Given by Jehovah.  Therefore presumably a "good work"
Ramoth in Gilead is ours, and we be still, and take it not out of
 to take it.  But "good works" are "prepared works" (Eph. 2. 10),
the hand of the king of Syria?
and this was not so prepared.  See 2 Chron. 19. 1, 2.
4 And he said unto Jehoshaphat, Wilt thou go with me to battle to Syria. Probably taken in former war (16. 34— 20. 43,) by Ben-
Ramoth-gilead? And Jehoshaphat said to the king of Israel, I am hadad I from Omri, which his son Ben-hadad II agreed to restore.


as thou art, my People as thy People, my horses as thy horses. 5-28......JEHOSHAPHATS UNEASINESS.


5 And Jehoshaphat said unto the king of Israel, Inquire, I pray 6 prophets: i.e. Ahab’s false prophets.
thee, at the word of the LORD to day. for = and.
6 Then the king of Israel gathered the [false] prophets together, the Lord*. This is one of the 134 places where “Jehovah” was
changed to “Adonai” by the Sopherim.  See Ap. 32.
about four hundred men, and said unto them, Shall I go against 7 besides. Jehoshaphat uneasy, well knowing that Ahab’s
Ramoth-gilead to battle, or shall I forbear? And they said, Go up; prophets were not the prophets of Jehovah.


and the Lord shall deliver it into the hand of the king.
7 And Jehoshaphat said, Is there not here a prophet of the LORD


besides, that we might inquire of him?
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22. 8. I KINGS. 22. 31.


8 And the king of Israel said unto Jehoshaphat, There is yet one 10 void place = level place, or threshing-floor.
13 word. So to be read;  but written "words".  In some
man, Micaiah the son of Imlah, by whom we may inquire of the
codices, with three early printed editions, Syr., and Vulg., it is
LORD: but I hate him; for he doth not prophesy good concerning both written and read "word".  Cp. 2 Chron. 18. 12.
me, but evil.  And Jehoshaphat said, Let not the king say so. 15 Go, and prosper. Fig. Eironeia. Ap. 6.  Doubtless
9 Then the king of Israel called an officer, and said, Hasten hither repeating the words he had heard in vv. 6, 13.
16 shall: or must.
Micaiah the son of Imlah.
18 Did I not...? Fig. Erotesis. Ap. 6.
10 And the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat the king of Judah sat 19 heaven = the heavens, as always.
each on his throne, having put on their robes, in a threshing-floor 20 persuade = entice.
21 a spirit = the spirit.  Heb. ruach. A p. 9.
in the entrance of the gate of Samaria; and all the [false] prophets
22 Thou shalt, &c. Illustrating 2 Thess. 2. 9-12. Cp. Ezek. 14.
prophesied before them. 9: "I have deceived" = I have permitted it.  This is quite in
11 And Zedekiah the son of Chenaanah made him horns of iron: harmony with Prov. 12. 22.  That refers to the sphere of God's
and he said, Thus saith the LORD, With these shalt thou push the grace;  this to the sphere of His judgment. We are governed by
His Word, not by His ways.  Prov. 12. 22 refers to the world of
Syrians, until thou have consumed them.
men. This to the world of spirits,
12 And all the [false] prophets prophesied so, saying, Go up to 23 spoken: in v. 17.
Ramoth-gilead, and prosper: and the LORD shall deliver it into 24 Which way...? or, Which way then ?
the king's hand. 27 Put this fellow, &c. One of the eleven rulers offended with
God's servants for speaking the truth.  See note on Ex. 10. 28.
13 And the messenger that was gone to call Micaiah spake unto 28 People = peoples. every one = all.
him, saying, Behold now, the words of the prophets declare good 30 I will. See note on v. 22.  A feigned compliment. and piece
unto the king with one mouth:  let thy written and read word, I of treachery.
pray thee, be like the word of one of them, and speak that which
is Good.
14 And Micaiah said, As the LORD liveth, what the LORD in the mouth of all these thy prophets, and the
saith unto me, that will I speak.
LORD hath spoken evil concerning thee.
15 So he came to the king.  And the king said unto him, 24 But Zedekiah the son of Chenaanah went near,
Micaiah, shall we go against Ramoth-gilead to battle, or shall and smote Micaiah on the cheek, and said, Which
 21
we forbear? And he answered him, Go, and prosper: and the way then went the Spirit of the LORD from me to
LORD shall deliver it into the hand of the king. speak unto thee?
16 And the king said unto him, How many times must I adjure 25 And Micaiah said, Behold, thou shalt see in that
thee that thou tell me nothing but that which is true in the name day, when thou shalt go into an inner chamber to
of the LORD? hide thyself.
17 And he said, I saw all Israel scattered upon the hills, as sheep 26 And the king of Israel said, Take Micaiah, and
that have not a shepherd: and the LORD said, These have no carry him back unto Amon the governor of the city,
master: let them return every man to his house in peace. and to Joash the king's son;
*
18 And the king of Israel said unto Jehoshaphat, Did I not tell 27 And say, Thus saith the king, Put this fellow in
thee that he would prophesy no good concerning me, but evil? the prison, and feed him with bread of affliction and
19 And he said, Hear thou therefore the word of the LORD:  I with water of affliction, until I come in peace.
saw the LORD sitting on His throne, and all the host of the 28 And Micaiah said, If thou return at all in peace,
heavens standing by Him on His right hand and on His left. the LORD hath not spoken by me.  And he said,
20 And the LORD said, Who shall entice Ahab, that he may go Hearken, O peoples, all of you.
up and fall at Ramoth-gilead?  And one said on this manner, 29 So the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat the king of
and another said on that manner. Judah went up to Ramoth-gilead.
21 And there came forth the spirit, and stood before the LORD,
30 And the king of Israel said unto Jehoshaphat, I
and said, I will entice him. will disguise myself, and enter into the battle; but
22 And the LORD said unto him, Wherewith? And he said, I put thou on thy robes.  And the king of Israel
21
will go forth, and I will be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his disguised himself, and went into the battle.


prophets. And he said, Thou shalt entice him, and prevail also: 31 But the king of Syria commanded his thirty and
go forth, and do so. two captains that had rule over his chariots, saying,
21
23 Now therefore, behold, the LORD hath put a lying spirit Fight neither with small nor great, save only with
 the king of Israel.
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22. 32. I KINGS. 22. 53.


32 And it came to pass, when the captains of the chariots saw 32 it = he. cried out. See note on 2 Chron. 18. 31.
34 at a venture = in his innocence, or to its full stretch.
Jehoshaphat, that they said, Surely he is the king of Israel.  And
 harness = coat of mail.
they turned aside to fight against him:  and Jehoshaphat cried Turn thine hand. This is Ahab's history; 2 Chron. 18 is
out. Jehoshaphat's.  Hence nothing about Jehovah's help.
33 And it came to pass, when the captains of the chariots 35 was stayed up = stayed himself up, as in 2 Chron. 18. 34.
Difference caused by pointing of the word ma'amid (here), and
perceived that he was not the king of Israel, that they turned back
ma'amid in Chronicles.  The only occurrence of this participle,
from pursuing him. cp. 2 Chron. 18. 34.
34 And a certain man drew a bow to its full stretch, and smote the 36 Every man. Supply Fig. Ellipsis (Ap. 6), "Let every man
go".
king of Israel between the joints of the coat of mail:  wherefore he
 every man. Omitted in some codices, with two early printed
said unto the driver of his chariot, Turn thine hand, and carry me editions, Sept., and Vulg.
out of the host; for I am wounded. 40 slept with his fathers. See note on Deut. 31.16.


35 And the battle increased that day:  and the king stayed himself 41-50......   .JUDAH (JEHOSHAPHAT).


up in his chariot against the Syrians, and died at even:  and the 41, 42. Jehoshaphat.   Accession.
blood ran out of the wound into the midst of the chariot. 43, 44. Personal.   Well- and wrong-doing.
45. Jehoshaphat.   Political events.  Record.
36 And there went a proclamation throughout the host about the
46-49. Personal.   Well- and wrong-doing.
going down of the sun, saying, [Let every man go] to his city, and 50. Jehoshaphat.   Death and burial.


... to his own country. 41 Jehoshaphat. Cp. 2 Chron. 17.1.
37 So the king died, and was brought to Samaria; and they buried 43 And he walked. The 19th Seder begins here, and ends with
the king in Samaria. 2 Kings 2. 14.See note on p. 866.
offered = sacrificed.  See Ap. 43. I. iv.
38 And one washed the chariot in the pool of Samaria; and the
46 sodomites. See note on 14. 23, 24.
dogs licked up his blood; and they washed his armour; according 47 no king. As later in 2 Kings 8. 20.
unto the word of the LORD which He spake. 48 made ships, &c. This was subsequent to 2 Chron. 20. 36-
39 Now the rest of the acts of Ahab, and all that he did, and the 37.  Here Jehoshaphat made "Tharshish ships" to go to Ophir,
and, profiting by the experience and warning of 2 Chron. 20. 37,
ivory house which he made, and all the cities that he built, are
refused the request of Aha-ziah, king of Israel.  In 2 Chron. 20.
they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of 35 he had joined himself with Ahaziah to make (ordinary) ships
Israel? to go to Tharshish, which was quite a different thing.
ships of Tharshish = Tharshish ships:  i. e, large ocean-going
40 So Ahab died; and Ahaziah his son reigned in his stead.
 ships.
41 And Jehoshaphat the son of Asa began to reign over Judah in Tharshish. See note on 10. 22.
the fourth year of Ahab king of Israel. 50 buried : in further explanation of preceding clause.
42 Jehoshaphat was thirty and five years old when he began to
reign; and he reigned twenty and five years in Jerusalem.  And his
mother’s name was Azubah the daughter of Shilhi.
50 And Jehoshaphat died, and was buried with


43 And he walked in all the ways of Asa his father; he turned his fathers in the city of David his father:  and
not aside from it, doing that which was right in the eyes of the Jehoram his son reigned in his stead.
LORD:  nevertheless the high places were not taken away; for the 51 Ahaziah the son of Ahab began to reign over
People sacrificed and burnt incense yet in the high places. Israel in Samaria the seventeenth year of
44 And Jehoshaphat made peace with the king of Israel. Jehoshaphat king of Judah, and reigned two years
45 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoshaphat, and his might that he over Israel.
shewed, and how he warred, are they not written in the book of 52 And he did evil in the sight of the LORD, and
the chronicles of the kings of Judah? walked in the way of his father, and in the way of


46 And the remnant of the sodomites, which remained in the his mother, and in the way of Jeroboam the son of
days of his father Asa, he took out of the land.
Nebat, who made Israel to sin:


47 There was then no king in Edom:  a deputy was king. 53 For he served Baal, and worshipped him, and


48 Jehoshaphat made ships of Tharshish to go to Ophir for provoked to anger the LORD God of Israel,
gold:  but they went not; for the ships were broken at Ezion- according to all that his father had done.
geber.
49 Then said Ahaziah the son of Ahab unto Jehoshaphat, Let my
servants go with thy servants in the ships. But Jehoshaphat would
not.


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